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Document Collection: 702312506
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7023/Dynein%20thumbnail.png'></DIV>Dynein moving along microtubulesNoVideoActive5/20/2024 9:55 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Dynein (green) is a motor protein that “walks” along microtubules (red, part of the cytoskeleton) and carries its cargo along with it. This video was captured through fluorescence microscopy.
Document Collection: 702212503
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7022/Cellular%20radios.png'></DIV>Single-cell “radios” NoVideoActive5/6/2024 9:17 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Individual cells are color-coded based on their identity and signaling activity using a protein circuit technology developed by the Coyle Lab. Just as a radio allows you to listen to an individual frequency, this technology allows researchers to tune into the specific “radio station” of each cell through genetically encoded proteins from a bacterial system called MinDE. The proteins generate an oscillating fluorescent signal that transmits information about cell shape, state, and identity that can be decoded using digital signal processing tools originally designed for telecommunications. The approach allows researchers to look at the dynamics of a single cell in the presence of many other cells.
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Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7021">7021</a>.
Document Collection: 702112498
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7021/Cellular%20Radios%20Image_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Single-cell “radios” NoPhotographActive5/6/2024 9:14 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Individual cells are color-coded based on their identity and signaling activity using a protein circuit technology developed by the Coyle Lab. Just as a radio allows you to listen to an individual frequency, this technology allows researchers to tune into the specific “radio station” of each cell through genetically encoded proteins from a bacterial system called MinDE. The proteins generate an oscillating fluorescent signal that transmits information about cell shape, state, and identity that can be decoded using digital signal processing tools originally designed for telecommunications. The approach allows researchers to look at the dynamics of a single cell in the presence of many other cells.
<Br><Br>
Related to video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7022">7022</a>.
Document Collection: 702012478
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7020/10.%20juvenile%20light%20organ%20with%20GFP%20crypt_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Bacterial symbionts colonizing the crypts of a juvenile Hawaiian bobtail squid light organNoPhotographActive4/15/2024 8:39 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
A light organ (~0.5 mm across) of a Hawaiian bobtail squid, <em>Euprymna scolopes</em>, stained blue. At the time of this image, the crypts within the tissues of only one side of the organ had been colonized by green-fluorescent protein-labeled <em>Vibrio fischeri</em> cells, which can be seen here in green. This image was taken using confocal fluorescence microscopy.

<Br><Br> Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7016">7016</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7017">7017</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7018">7018</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7019">7019</a>.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism, bacteria
Document Collection: 701912469
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7019/9.%20Aggregate%20above%20pores_cropped_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Bacterial cells aggregated above a light-organ pore of the Hawaiian bobtail squidNoPhotographActive4/12/2024 9:10 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
The beating of cilia on the outside of the Hawaiian bobtail squid’s light organ concentrates <em>Vibrio fischeri</em> cells (green) present in the seawater into aggregates near the pore-containing tissue (red). From there, the bacterial cells (~2 mm) swim to the pores and migrate through a bottleneck into the interior crypts where a population of symbionts grow and remain for the life of the host. This image was taken using confocal fluorescence microscopy.
<Br><Br> Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7016">7016</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7017">7017</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7018">7018</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7020">7020</a>.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism, bacteria, Euprymna scolopes
Document Collection: 701812468
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7018/8.%20Light%20organ%20with%20symbiont%20aggregates_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Bacterial cells aggregating above the light organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squidNoPhotographActive4/12/2024 9:09 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
A light organ (~0.5 mm across) of a juvenile Hawaiian bobtail squid, <em>Euprymna scolopes</em>. Movement of cilia on the surface of the organ aggregates bacterial symbionts (green) into two areas above sets of pores that lead to interior crypts.
This image was taken using a confocal fluorescence microscope.
<Br><Br> Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7016">7016</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7017">7017</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7019">7019</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7020">7020</a>.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism, bacteria
Document Collection: 701712463
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7017/7.%20Multicolored%20juvenile%20light%20organ_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>The nascent juvenile light organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squidNoPhotographActive4/12/2024 9:07 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
A light organ (~0.5 mm across) of a Hawaiian bobtail squid, <em>Euprymna scolopes</em>, with different tissues are stained various colors. The two pairs of ciliated appendages, or “arms,” on the sides of the organ move <em>Vibrio fischeri</em> bacterial cells closer to the two sets of three pores (two seen in this image) at the base of the arms that each lead to an interior crypt. This image was taken using a confocal fluorescence microscope.
<Br><Br> Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7016">7016</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7018">7018</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7019">7019</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7020">7020</a>.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism, bacteria
Document Collection: 701612458
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7016/6.%20Blue%20light%20organ_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Pores on the surface of the Hawaiian bobtail squid light organNoPhotographActive4/12/2024 9:06 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
The light organ (~0.5 mm across) of a juvenile Hawaiian bobtail squid, <em>Euprymna scolopes</em>, stained blue. The two pairs of ciliated appendages, or “arms,” on the sides of the organ move <em>Vibrio fischeri</em> bacterial cells closer to the two sets of three pores at the base of the arms that each lead to an interior crypt.
This image was taken using a confocal fluorescence microscope.

<Br><Br> Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7017">7017</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7018">7018</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7019">7019</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7020">7020</a>.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism, bacteria
Document Collection: 701512453
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7015/5.%20Bottleneck%20closeup_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Bacterial cells migrating through the tissues of the squid light organNoPhotographActive4/12/2024 9:02 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
<em>Vibrio fischeri</em> cells (~ 2 mm), labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), passing through a very narrow bottleneck in the tissues (red) of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, <em>Euprymna scolopes</em>, on the way to the crypts where the symbiont population resides. This image was taken using a confocal fluorescence microscope.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism, bacteria
Document Collection: 701412434
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7014/4.%20Flagellated%20symbionts_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Flagellated bacterial cells NoPhotographActive4/5/2024 4:05 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
<em>Vibrio fischeri</em> (2 mm in length) is the exclusive symbiotic partner of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, <em>Euprymna scolopes</em>. After this bacterium uses its flagella to swim from the seawater into the light organ of a newly hatched juvenile, it colonizes the host and loses the appendages. This image was taken using a scanning electron microscope.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism, bacteria, flagellum
Document Collection: 701312428
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7013/3.%20Adult%20squid_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>An adult Hawaiian bobtail squid NoPhotographActive4/5/2024 4:00 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
An adult female Hawaiian bobtail squid, <em>Euprymna scolopes</em>, with its mantle cavity exposed from the underside. Some internal organs are visible, including the two lobes of the light organ that contains bioluminescent bacteria, <em>Vibrio fischeri</em>. The light organ includes accessory tissues like an ink sac (black) that serves as a shutter, and a silvery reflector that directs the light out of the underside of the animal.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism
Document Collection: 701212425
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7012/11.%20Burying%20Squid.PNG'></DIV>Adult Hawaiian bobtail squid burying in the sandNoVideoActive4/5/2024 3:56 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Each morning, the nocturnal Hawaiian bobtail squid, <em>Euprymna scolopes</em>, hides from predators by digging into the sand. At dusk, it leaves the sand again to hunt.

<Br><Br>Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7010">7010</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7011">7011</a>.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism, bacteria
Document Collection: 701112420
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7011/2.%20Adult%20in%20hand_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Hawaiian bobtail squidNoPhotographActive4/5/2024 3:54 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
An adult Hawaiian bobtail squid, <em>Euprymna scolopes</em>, swimming next to a submerged hand.

<Br><Br>Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7010">7010</a> and video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7012">7012</a>.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism
Document Collection: 701012415
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7010/1.%20Adult%20and%20juveniles_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Adult and juvenile Hawaiian bobtail squidsNoPhotographActive4/5/2024 3:52 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
An adult Hawaiian bobtail squid, <em>Euprymna scolopes</em>, (~4 cm) surrounded by newly hatched juveniles (~2 mm) in a bowl of seawater.

<Br><Br>Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7011">7011</a> and video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=7012">7012</a>.
symbiont, symbiotic, bioluminescent, research organism
Document Collection: 700912410
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7009/hungryhungrymacs_bond_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Hungry, hungry macrophagesNoPhotographActive3/1/2024 11:48 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Macrophages (green) are the professional eaters of our immune system. They are constantly surveilling our tissues for targets—such as bacteria, dead cells, or even cancer—and clearing them before they can cause harm. In this image, researchers were testing how macrophages responded to different molecules that were attached to silica beads (magenta) coated with a lipid bilayer to mimic a cell membrane.

<Br><Br>Find more information on this image in the <em>NIH Director’s Blog</em> post <a href="https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2023/08/22/how-to-feed-a-macrophage/">"How to Feed a Macrophage."</a>
white blood cells, purple
Document Collection: 700412399
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7004/bcr-abl_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Protein kinases as cancer chemotherapy targetsNoIllustrationActive2/12/2024 4:07 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Protein kinases—enzymes that add phosphate groups to molecules—are cancer chemotherapy targets because they play significant roles in almost all aspects of cell function, are tightly regulated, and contribute to the development of cancer and other diseases if any alterations to their regulation occur. Genetic abnormalities affecting the c-Abl tyrosine kinase are linked to chronic myelogenous leukemia, a cancer of immature cells in the bone marrow. In the noncancerous form of the protein, binding of a myristoyl group to the kinase domain inhibits the activity of the protein until it is needed (top left shows the inactive form, top right shows the open and active form). The cancerous variant of the protein, called Bcr-Abl, lacks this autoinhibitory myristoyl group and is continually active (bottom). ATP is shown in green bound in the active site of the kinase.
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Find these in the RCSB Protein Data Bank: <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/1OPL">c-Abl tyrosine kinase and regulatory domains</a> (PDB entry 1OPL) and <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/1ZZP">F-actin binding domain</a> (PDB entry 1ZZP).
CML
Document Collection: 700312394
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7003/catalase-diversity_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Catalase diversityNoIllustrationActive2/5/2024 9:17 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Catalases are some of the most efficient enzymes found in cells. Each catalase molecule can decompose millions of hydrogen peroxide molecules every second—working as an antioxidant to protect cells from the dangerous form of reactive oxygen.  Different cells build different types of catalases. The human catalase that protects our red blood cells, shown on the left from PDB entry <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/1QQW">1QQW</a>, is composed of four identical subunits and uses a heme/iron group to perform the reaction. Many bacteria scavenge hydrogen peroxide with a larger catalase, shown in the center from PDB entry <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/1IPH">1IPH</a>, that uses a similar arrangement of iron and heme. Other bacteria protect themselves with an entirely different catalase that uses manganese ions instead of heme, as shown at the right from PDB entry <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/1JKU">1JKU</a>.
Document Collection: 700212389
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7002/ZAR1%20Resistosome_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Plant resistosomeNoIllustrationActive2/12/2024 3:50 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
 The research organism <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em> forms a large molecular machine called a resistosome to fight off infections. This illustration shows the top and side views of the fully-formed resistosome assembly (PDB entry <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/6J5T">6J5T</a>), composed of different proteins including one the plant uses as a decoy, PBL2 (dark blue), that gets uridylylated to begin the process of building the resistosome (uridylyl groups in magenta). Other proteins include RSK1 (turquoise) and ZAR1 (green) subunits. The ends of the ZAR1 subunits (yellow) form a funnel-like protrusion on one side of the assembly (seen in the side view). The funnel can carry out the critical protective function of the resistosome by inserting itself into the cell membrane to form a pore, which leads to a localized programmed cell death. The death of the infected cell helps protect the rest of the plant.
Document Collection: 700112384
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7001/HDAC_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Histone deacetylasesNoIllustrationActive2/12/2024 3:39 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
The human genome contains much of the information needed for every cell in the body to function. However, different types of cells often need different types of information. Access to DNA is controlled, in part, by how tightly it’s wrapped around proteins called histones to form nucleosomes.
The complex shown here, from yeast cells (PDB entry <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/6Z6P">6Z6P</a>), includes several histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes (green and blue) bound to a nucleosome (histone proteins in red; DNA in yellow). The yeast HDAC enzymes are similar to the human enzymes. Two enzymes form a V-shaped clamp (green) that holds the other others, a dimer of the Hda1 enzymes (blue). In this assembly, Hda1 is activated and positioned to remove acetyl groups from histone tails.
Document Collection: 700012379
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/7000/Plastic-eating%20Enzymes_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Plastic-eating enzymesNoIllustrationActive2/5/2024 8:57 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
PETase enzyme degrades polyester plastic (polyethylene terephthalate, or PET) into monohydroxyethyl terephthalate (MHET). Then, MHETase enzyme degrades MHET into its constituents ethylene glycol (EG) and terephthalic acid (TPA).

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Find these in the RCSB Protein Data Bank: <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/5XH3"> PET hydrolase</a> (PDB entry 5XH3) and <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/6QGA">MHETase</a> (PDB entry 6QGA).
Document Collection: 699912374
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6999/hiv-enzymes_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>HIV enzymeNoIllustrationActive2/5/2024 8:44 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
These images model the molecular structures of three enzymes with critical roles in the life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). At the top, reverse transcriptase (orange) creates a DNA copy (yellow) of the virus's RNA genome (blue). In the middle image, integrase (magenta) inserts this DNA copy in the DNA genome (green) of the infected cell. At the bottom, much later in the viral life cycle, protease (turquoise) chops up a chain of HIV structural protein (purple) to generate the building blocks for making new viruses.
See these enzymes in action on PDB 101’s video <a href="https://pdb101.rcsb.org/learn/videos/a-molecular-view-of-hiv-therapy"> A Molecular View of HIV Therapy</a>.

Document Collection: 699812369
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6998/zika-virus_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Zika virusNoIllustrationActive2/2/2024 4:01 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Zika virus is shown in cross section at center left. On the outside, it includes envelope protein (red) and membrane protein (magenta) embedded in a lipid membrane (light purple). Inside, the RNA genome (yellow) is associated with capsid proteins (orange). The viruses are shown interacting with receptors on the cell surface (green) and are surrounded by blood plasma molecules at the top.
Document Collection: 699712364
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6997/shiga-pstalk-large_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Shiga toxin NoIllustrationActive2/13/2024 3:28 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
<em>E. coli</em> bacteria normally live harmlessly in our intestines, but some cause disease by making toxins. One of these toxins, called Shiga toxin (green), inactivates host ribosomes (purple) by mimicking their normal binding partners, the EF-Tu elongation factor (red) complexed with Phe-tRNAPhe (orange).
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Find these in the RCSB Protein Data Bank: <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/7U6V">Shiga toxin 2</a> (PDB entry 7U6V) and <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/1TTT">Phe-tRNA</a> (PDB entry 1TTT).

<Br><Br> More information about this work can be found in the <em>J. Biol. Chem.</em> paper <a href="https://www.jbc.org/article/S0021-9258(22)01238-8/fulltext">"Cryo-EM structure of Shiga toxin 2 in complex with the native ribosomal P-stalk reveals residues involved in the binding interaction"</a> by Kulczyk et. al.

Escherichia coli
Document Collection: 699612359
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6996/231-Measles_Virus_Proteins-measles_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Measles virus proteinsNoIllustrationActive2/12/2024 3:34 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A cross section of the measles virus in which six proteins (enlarged on the outside of the virus) work together to infect cells. The measles virus is extremely infectious; 9 out of 10 people exposed will contract the disease. Fortunately, an effective vaccine protects against infection. Portions of the proteins that have not been determined are shown with dots.
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Learn more about the six proteins on PDB 101’s <a href="https://pdb101.rcsb.org/motm/231">Molecule of the Month: Measles Virus Proteins</a>.
Structures are available for the ordered regions of nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein (PDB entries <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/5E4V ">5E4V</a>, <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/3ZDO">3ZDO</a>, <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/1T6O">1T6O</a>), but the remaining regions are thought to form a flexible, random tangle. For a larger look at the measles virus, see <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6995">6995</a>.
Document Collection: 699512354
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6995/measles_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Measles virus NoIllustrationActive2/12/2024 3:28 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A cross section of the measles virus in which six proteins work together to infect cells. The measles virus is extremely infectious; 9 out of 10 people exposed will contract the disease. Fortunately, an effective vaccine protects against infection.
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For a zoomed-in look at the six important proteins, see <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6996">Measles Virus Proteins</a>.
Document Collection: 699412349
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6994/respiratory-droplet_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Respiratory dropletNoIllustrationActive2/22/2024 10:48 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
This painting shows a cross section of a small respiratory droplet, like the ones that are thought to transmit SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The virus is shown in pink, and the droplet is also filled with molecules that are present in the respiratory tract, including mucins (green), pulmonary surfactant proteins and lipids (blue), and antibodies (tan).
Document Collection: 699312344
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6993/RNA%20Polymerase_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>RNA polymeraseNoIllustrationActive2/2/2024 3:58 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
RNA polymerase (purple) is a complex enzyme at the heart of transcription. During this process, the enzyme unwinds the DNA double helix and uses one strand (darker orange) as a template to create the single-stranded messenger RNA (green), later used by ribosomes for protein synthesis. <Br><Br>
From the <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/1i6h">RNA polymerase II elongation complex of <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em></a> (PDB entry 1I6H) as seen in PDB-101's <a href="https://pdb101.rcsb.org/learn/videos/what-is-a-protein-video">What is a Protein?</a> video.
Document Collection: 699212339
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6992/Glutamatergic%20Synapse_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Molecular view of glutamatergic synapseNoIllustrationActive2/12/2024 1:42 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This illustration highlights spherical pre-synaptic vesicles that carry the neurotransmitter glutamate. The presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are shown with proteins relevant for transmitting and modulating the neuronal signal.
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PDB 101’s <a href="https://pdb101.rcsb.org/learn/videos/opioids-and-pain-signaling">Opioids and Pain Signaling video</a> explains how glutamatergic synapses are involved in the process of pain signaling.
Document Collection: 699112334
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6991/SARS-CoV-2%20Nucleocapsid%20Dimer_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid dimerNoIllustrationActive2/5/2024 8:50 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
In SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, nucleocapsid is a complex molecule with many functional parts. One section folds into an RNA-binding domain, with a groove that grips a short segment of the viral genomic RNA. Another section folds into a dimerization domain that brings two nucleocapsid molecules together. The rest of the protein is intrinsically disordered, forming tails at each end of the protein chain and a flexible linker that connects the two structured domains. These disordered regions assist with RNA binding and orchestrate association of nucleocapsid dimers into larger assemblies that package the RNA in the small space inside virions. Nucleocapsid is in magenta and purple, and short RNA strands are in yellow.
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Find these in the RCSB Protein Data Bank: <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/7ACT">RNA-binding domain</a> (PDB entry 7ACT) and <a href="https://www.rcsb.org/structure/6WJI">Dimerization domain</a> (PDB entry 6WJI).
COVID
Document Collection: 698612306
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6986/Breast%20Cancer%20Cells.png'></DIV>Breast cancer cells change migration phenotypesNoVideoActive1/26/2024 10:52 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Cancer cells can change their migration phenotype, which includes their shape and the way that they move to invade different tissues. This movie shows breast cancer cells forming a tumor spheroid—a 3D ball of cancer cells—and invading the surrounding tissue. Images were taken using a laser scanning confocal microscope, and artificial intelligence (AI) models were used to segment and classify the images by migration phenotype. On the right side of the video, each phenotype is represented by a different color, as recognized by the AI program based on identifiable characteristics of those phenotypes. The movie demonstrates how cancer cells can use different migration modes during growth and metastasis—the spreading of cancer cells within the body.
Document Collection: 698512294
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6985/%234%20Fed%20vs%20Stv%20Drosophila%20fat_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Fruit fly brain responds to adipokinesNoPhotographActive12/19/2023 4:06 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
<em> Drosophila </em> adult brain showing that an adipokine (fat hormone) generates a response from neurons (aqua) and regulates insulin-producing neurons (red).
<Br><Br>Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6982">6982</a>,  <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6983">6983</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6984">6984</a>.
nerve cells
Document Collection: 698412293
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6984/%233%20Fed%20vs%20Stv%20Drosophila%20fat_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Fruit fly starvation leads to adipokine accumulationNoPhotographActive12/19/2023 2:20 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Adult <em> Drosophila </em> abdominal fat tissue showing cell nuclei labelled in magenta. The upper panel is from well-fed flies, and the lower panel is from flies that have been deprived of food for 4 hours. Starvation results in the accumulation of a key adipokine—a fat hormone (blue-green dots). 
<Br><Br>Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6982">6982</a>,  <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6983">6983</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6985">6985</a>.
Document Collection: 698312288
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6983/2%20thumbnail.png'></DIV>Genetic mosaicism in fruit fliesNoPhotographActive12/19/2023 2:15 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Fat tissue from the abdomen of a genetically mosaic adult fruit fly. Genetic mosaicism means that the fly has cells with different genotypes even though it formed from a single zygote. This specific mosaicism results in accumulation of a critical fly adipokine (blue-green) within the fat tissue cells that have reduced expression a key nutrient sensing gene (in left panel). The dotted line shows the cells lacking the gene that is present and functioning in the rest of the cells. Nuclei are labelled in magenta. This image was captured using a confocal microscope and shows a maximum intensity projection of many slices.
<Br><Br>Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6982">6982</a>,  <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6984">6984</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6985">6985</a>.
Document Collection: 698212283
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6982/%231_Dilp%20ApoII_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Insulin production and fat sensing in fruit fliesNoPhotographActive12/19/2023 2:12 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Fourteen neurons (magenta) in the adult <em> Drosophila </em> brain produce insulin, and fat tissue sends packets of lipids to the brain via the lipoprotein carriers (green). This image was captured using a confocal microscope and shows a maximum intensity projection of many slices. <Br><Br>Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6983">6983</a>,  <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6984">6984</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6985">6985</a>.
fruit fly, nerve cells
Document Collection: 697212273
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6972/Journey%20of%20an%20mRNA%20Vaccine_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Journey of an mRNA VaccineNoIllustrationActive5/13/2024 1:14 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
The SARS-CoV-2 virus (the virus that causes COVID-19) has a spike protein that it uses like a tool to break into and infect cells. On its own, the spike protein is harmless and can be used as a tool to train your immune system to defend against the virus.
<Br><Br> Step 1: Scientists make copies of mRNA with instructions that tell the human body how to make only the outer spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.
<Br><Br> Step 2:  mRNA is packaged inside tiny globules called lipid nanoparticles. Lipids (fatty acids) are used as the vehicle because they: Protect the mRNA from breaking down Help it pass through cell membranes and into the body's cells
<Br><Br> Step 3: The vaccine's mRNA instructions pass into muscle cells (near where a vaccine injection is given), and those muscle cells make copies of the spike protein.
<Br><Br> Step 4: Though the spikes are harmless, the body’s immune system recognizes them as antigens (foreign substances) and produces targeted antibodies to defend against them.
<Br><Br> Step 5: The body eliminates the vaccine material. Special white blood cells called memory cells "remember" the spike protein and which antibodies to make if they happen upon the spike again.
<Br><Br> Step 6: If SARS-CoV-2 (and its telltale spike proteins) enter a vaccinated person's body, the immune system reacts with antibodies that defend against infection more swiftly than it otherwise could if it had never seen the spike protein.
<Br><Br> Featured in <a href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/pathways/Pages/Home.aspx#vaccines">“<em>Pathways:</em> Vaccine Science.”</a>
Document Collection: 697112209
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6971/Snowflake%20Yeast%203_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Snowflake yeastNoPhotographActive7/17/2023 12:45 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Multicellular yeast called snowflake yeast that researchers created through many generations of directed evolution from unicellular yeast. Here, the researchers visualized nuclei in orange to help them study changes in how the yeast cells divided. Cell walls are shown in blue. This image was captured using spinning disk confocal microscopy.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6969">6969</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6970">6970</a>.
Research organisms, model organisms, saccharomyces cerevisiae, nucleus
Document Collection: 697012200
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6970/Snowflake%20Yeast%202_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Snowflake yeastNoPhotographActive11/15/2023 8:15 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Multicellular yeast called snowflake yeast that researchers created through many generations of directed evolution from unicellular yeast. Cells are connected to one another by their cell walls, shown in blue. Stained cytoplasm (green) and membranes (magenta) show that the individual cells remain separate. This image was captured using spinning disk confocal microscopy.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6969">6969</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6971">6971</a>.
Research organisms, model organisms, saccharomyces cerevisiae
Document Collection: 696912199
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6969/Snowflake%20Yeast%201_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Snowflake yeastNoPhotographActive2/6/2023 9:03 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Multicellular yeast called snowflake yeast that researchers created through many generations of directed evolution from unicellular yeast. Stained cell membranes (green) and cell walls (red) reveal the connections between cells. Younger cells take up more cell membrane stain, while older cells take up more cell wall stain, leading to the color differences seen here. This image was captured using spinning disk confocal microscopy.
<Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6970">6970</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6971">6971</a>.
Research organisms, model organisms, saccharomyces cerevisiae, balloons
Document Collection: 696812191
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6968/Regenerating%20Lizard%20Tail_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Regenerating lizard tailNoPhotographActive1/30/2023 11:49 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
The interior of a regenerating lizard tail 14 days after the original tail was amputated. Cell nuclei (blue), proliferating cells (green), cartilage (red), and muscle (white) have been visualized with immunofluorescence staining.
reptiles, research organisms, regeneration
Document Collection: 696712190
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6967/Multinucleated%20Cell%20Thumbnail.PNG'></DIV>Multinucleated cancer cellNoVideoActive4/28/2023 3:34 PMRose, Juli (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A cancer cell with three nuclei, shown in turquoise. The abnormal number of nuclei indicates that the cell failed to go through cell division, probably more than once. Mitochondria are shown in yellow, and a protein of the cell’s cytoskeleton appears in red. This video was captured using a confocal microscope.
nucleus, mitosis
Document Collection: 696612189
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6966/Dying%20Melanoma%20Cells%20Thumbnail.PNG'></DIV>Dying melanoma cellsNoVideoActive1/27/2023 4:56 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Melanoma (skin cancer) cells undergoing programmed cell death, also called apoptosis. This process was triggered by raising the pH of the medium that the cells were growing in. Melanoma in people cannot be treated by raising pH because that would also kill healthy cells. This video was taken using a differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope.
Document Collection: 696512183
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6965/Dividing%20Cell%20Thumbnail.PNG'></DIV>Dividing cellNoVideoActive1/27/2023 4:51 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
As this cell was undergoing cell division, it was imaged with two microscopy techniques: differential interference contrast (DIC) and confocal. The DIC view appears in blue and shows the entire cell. The confocal view appears in pink and shows the chromosomes.
mitosis, dna, genome
Document Collection: 696412181
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6964/A%20Crawling%20Cell_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Crawling cellNoPhotographActive1/27/2023 4:48 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A crawling cell with DNA shown in blue and actin filaments, which are a major component of the cytoskeleton, visible in pink. Actin filaments help enable cells to crawl. This image was captured using structured illumination microscopy.
Document Collection: 696312172
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6963/Celegans%20in%20Fungus%20Image.PNG'></DIV>C. elegans trapped by carnivorous fungusNoVideoActive1/27/2023 4:47 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Real-time footage of <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em>, a tiny roundworm, trapped by a carnivorous fungus, <em>Arthrobotrys dactyloides</em>. This fungus makes ring traps in response to the presence of <em>C. elegans</em>. When a worm enters a ring, the trap rapidly constricts so that the worm cannot move away, and the fungus then consumes the worm. The size of the imaged area is 0.7mm x 0.9mm.
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This video was obtained with a polychromatic polarizing microscope (PPM) in white light that shows the polychromatic birefringent image with hue corresponding to the slow axis orientation. More information about PPM can be found in the <em>Scientific Reports</em> paper <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/srep17340/">“Polychromatic Polarization Microscope: Bringing Colors to a Colorless World”</a> by Shribak.
research organism, model organism, nematode, fungi
Document Collection: 696212173
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6962/Trigonium_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Trigonium diatomNoPhotographActive1/27/2023 4:46 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A <em>Trigonium</em> diatom imaged by a quantitative orientation-independent differential interference contrast (OI-DIC) microscope. Diatoms are single-celled photosynthetic algae with mineralized cell walls that contain silica and provide protection and support. These organisms form an important part of the plankton at the base of the marine and freshwater food chains. The width of this image is 90 μm.
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More information about the microscopy that produced this image can be found in the <em>Journal of Microscopy</em> paper <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jmi.12682/">“An Orientation-Independent DIC Microscope Allows High Resolution Imaging of Epithelial Cell Migration and Wound Healing in a Cnidarian Model”</a> by Malamy and Shribak.
unicellular, microscopic
Document Collection: 696112166
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6961/Celegans%20Image%20Showing%20Organs_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>C. elegans showing internal structuresNoPhotographActive1/30/2023 9:23 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
An image of <em>Caenorhabditis elegans</em>, a tiny roundworm, showing internal structures including the intestine, pharynx, and body wall muscle. <em>C. elegans</em> is one of the simplest organisms with a nervous system. Scientists use it to study nervous system development, among other things. This image was captured with a quantitative orientation-independent differential interference contrast (OI-DIC) microscope. The scale bar is 100 µm.
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More information about the microscopy that produced this image can be found in the <em>Journal of Microscopy</em> paper <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jmi.12682/">“An Orientation-Independent DIC Microscope Allows High Resolution Imaging of Epithelial Cell Migration and Wound Healing in a Cnidarian Model”</a> by Malamy and Shribak.
research organism, model organism, nematode
Document Collection: 693412264
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6934/Zebrafish%20Head_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Zebrafish head vasculatureNoPhotographActive3/28/2023 3:29 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A zebrafish head with blood vessels shown in purple. Researchers often study zebrafish because they share many genes with humans, grow and reproduce quickly, and have see-through eggs and embryos, which make it easy to study early stages of development.
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This image was captured using a light sheet microscope.
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Related to video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6933">6933</a>.
research organisms, model organisms
Document Collection: 693312261
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6933/ZebrafishThumbnail.PNG'></DIV>Zebrafish head vasculatureNoVideoActive3/28/2023 3:28 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Various views of a zebrafish head with blood vessels shown in purple. Researchers often study zebrafish because they share many genes with humans, grow and reproduce quickly, and have see-through eggs and embryos, which make it easy to study early stages of development.
<Br><Br>
This video was captured using a light sheet microscope.
<Br><Br>
Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6934">6934</a>.
research organisms, model organisms
Document Collection: 693212256
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6932/Purple%20Axolotl_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>AxolotlNoPhotographActive3/28/2023 3:22 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
An axolotl—a type of salamander—that has been genetically modified so that its developing nervous system glows purple and its Schwann cell nuclei appear light blue. Schwann cells insulate and provide nutrients to peripheral nerve cells. Researchers often study axolotls for their extensive regenerative abilities. They can regrow tails, limbs, spinal cords, brains, and more. The researcher who took this image focuses on the role of the peripheral nervous system during limb regeneration.
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This image was captured using a stereo microscope.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6927">6927</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6928">6928</a>.
research organisms, salamanders, amphibians
Document Collection: 693112253
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6931/MouseBrainThumbnail.PNG'></DIV>Mouse brainNoVideoActive3/28/2023 3:25 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Various views of a mouse brain that was genetically modified so that subpopulations of its neurons glow. Researchers often study mice because they share many genes with people and can shed light on biological processes, development, and diseases in humans.
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This video was captured using a light sheet microscope.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6929">6929</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6930">6930</a>.
research organisms, model organisms, nerve cells
Document Collection: 693012248
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6930/Mouse%20Brain_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Mouse brainNoPhotographActive3/28/2023 3:24 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A mouse brain that was genetically modified so that subpopulations of its neurons glow. Researchers often study mice because they share many genes with people and can shed light on biological processes, development, and diseases in humans.
<Br><Br>
This image was captured using a light sheet microscope.
<Br><Br>
Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6929">6929</a> and video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6931">6931</a>.
research organisms, model organisms, nerve cells
Document Collection: 692912243
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6929/Green%20Mouse%20Brain_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Mouse brainNoPhotographActive3/28/2023 3:24 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A mouse brain that was genetically modified so that subpopulations of its neurons glow. Researchers often study mice because they share many genes with people and can shed light on biological processes, development, and diseases in humans.
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This image was captured using a light sheet microscope.
<Br><Br>
Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6930">6930</a> and video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6931">6931</a>.
research organisms, model organisms, nerve cells
Document Collection: 692812238
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6928/Multiple%20Axolotls_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Axolotls showing nervous system componentsNoPhotographActive3/28/2023 4:07 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Axolotls—a type of salamander—that have been genetically modified so that various parts of their nervous systems glow purple and green. Researchers often study axolotls for their extensive regenerative abilities. They can regrow tails, limbs, spinal cords, brains, and more. The researcher who took this image focuses on the role of the peripheral nervous system during limb regeneration.
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This image was captured using a stereo microscope.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6927">6927</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6932">6932</a>.
research organisms, salamanders, amphibians
Document Collection: 692712233
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6927/Axolotl%20Nervous%20System_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Axolotl showing nervous systemNoPhotographActive3/28/2023 3:20 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
The head of an axolotl—a type of salamander—that has been genetically modified so that its developing nervous system glows purple and its Schwann cell nuclei appear light blue. Schwann cells insulate and provide nutrients to peripheral nerve cells. Researchers often study axolotls for their extensive regenerative abilities. They can regrow tails, limbs, spinal cords, brains, and more. The researcher who took this image focuses on the role of the peripheral nervous system during limb regeneration.
<Br><Br>
This image was captured using a light sheet microscope.
<Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6928">6928</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6932">6932</a>.
research organisms, salamanders, amphibians
Document Collection: 69038761
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6903/baby%20squid%20still.png'></DIV>Young squidsNoVideoActive1/5/2024 8:57 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Real-time movie of young squids. Squids are often used as research organisms due to having the largest nervous system of any invertebrate, complex behaviors like instantaneous camouflage, and other unique traits.
<Br><Br>This video was taken with polychromatic polarization microscope, as described in the <em>Scientific Reports</em> paper <a href=" https://www.nature.com/articles/srep17340/">“Polychromatic Polarization Microscope: Bringing Colors to a Colorless World”</a> by Shribak. The color is generated by interaction of white polarized light with the squid’s transparent soft tissue. The tissue works as a living tunable spectral filter, and the transmission band depends on the molecular orientation. When the young squid is moving, the tissue orientation changes, and its color shifts accordingly.
Cephalopods
Document Collection: 69028746
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6902/Fourth%20of%20July_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Arachnoidiscus diatomNoPhotographActive7/13/2022 4:00 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
An <em> Arachnoidiscus</em> diatom with a diameter of 190µm. Diatoms are microscopic algae that have cell walls made of silica, which is the strongest known biological material relative to its density. In <em> Arachnoidiscus</em>, the cell wall is a radially symmetric pillbox-like shell composed of overlapping halves that contain intricate and delicate patterns. Sometimes, <em> Arachnoidiscus</em> is called “a wheel of glass.”
<Br><Br> This image was taken with the orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope.
red and blue round structure that looks like a ferris wheel, fireworks, Independence Day
Document Collection: 69018741
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6901/Brain%20Slice_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Mouse brain slice showing nerve cellsNoPhotographActive6/30/2022 8:16 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
A 20-µm thick section of mouse midbrain. The nerve cells are transparent and weren’t stained. Instead, the color is generated by interaction of white polarized light with the molecules in the cells and indicates their orientation.
<Br><Br>The image was obtained with a polychromatic polarizing microscope that shows the polychromatic birefringent image with hue corresponding to the slow axis orientation.  More information about the microscopy that produced this image can be found in the <em>Scientific Reports</em> paper <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/srep17340/">“Polychromatic Polarization Microscope: Bringing Colors to a Colorless World”</a> by Shribak.
blue, red, green, pink, neurons
Document Collection: 68998731
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6899/Circular%20Lamellipodia%20still.png'></DIV>Epithelial cell migrationNoVideoActive6/30/2022 12:45 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
High-resolution time lapse of epithelial (skin) cell migration and wound healing. It shows an image taken every 13 seconds over the course of almost 14 minutes. The images were captured with quantitative orientation-independent differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope (left) and a conventional DIC microscope (right).
<Br><Br>More information about the research that produced this video can be found in the <em>Journal of Microscopy</em> paper <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jmi.12682/">“An Orientation-Independent DIC Microscope Allows High Resolution Imaging of Epithelial Cell Migration and Wound Healing in a Cnidarian Model”</a> by Malamy and Shribak.
cell movement, heal cells
Document Collection: 68988728
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6898/Crane%20Fly%20Still.png'></DIV>Crane fly spermatocyte undergoing meiosisNoVideoActive6/30/2022 12:43 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
A crane fly spermatocyte during metaphase of meiosis-I, a step in the production of sperm. A meiotic spindle pulls apart three pairs of autosomal chromosomes, along with a sex chromosome on the right. Tubular mitochondria surround the spindle and chromosomes. This video was captured with quantitative orientation-independent differential interference contrast and is a time lapse showing a 1-second image taken every 30 seconds over the course of 30 minutes. <Br><Br>
More information about the research that produced this video can be found in the <em>J. Biomed Opt.</em> paper <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2302836/">“Orientation-Independent Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Microscopy and Its Combination with Orientation-Independent Polarization System”</a> by Shribak et. al.
cell division
Document Collection: 68978723
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6897/Zebrafish_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Zebrafish embryoNoPhotographActive6/30/2022 8:03 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
A zebrafish embryo showing its natural colors. Zebrafish have see-through eggs and embryos, making them ideal research organisms for studying the earliest stages of development. This image was taken in transmitted light under a polychromatic polarizing microscope. 
blue, line, circle
Document Collection: 68938713
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6893/Tenocyte_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Chromatin in human tenocyteNoPhotographActive4/4/2023 4:31 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
The nucleus of a degenerating human tendon cell, also known as a tenocyte. It has been color-coded based on the density of chromatin—a substance made up of DNA and proteins. Areas of low chromatin density are shown in blue, and areas of high chromatin density are shown in red. This image was captured using Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). <Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6887">6887</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6888">6888</a>.
Document Collection: 68928708
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6892/MicrotubulesandTau_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Microtubules and tau aggregatesNoPhotographActive4/4/2023 4:31 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Microtubules (magenta) and tau protein (light blue) in a cell model of tauopathy. Researchers believe that tauopathy—the aggregation of tau protein—plays a role in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. This image was captured using Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). <Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6889">6889</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6890">6890</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6891">6891</a>.
Cytoskeleton
Document Collection: 68918703
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6891/MicrotubulesinMonkeyCells_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Microtubules in African green monkey cellsNoPhotographActive4/4/2022 12:10 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Microtubules in African green monkey cells. Microtubules are strong, hollow fibers that provide cells with structural support. Here, the microtubules have been color-coded based on their distance from the microscope lens: purple is closest to the lens, and yellow is farthest away. This image was captured using Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). <Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6889">6889</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6890">6890</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6892">6892</a>.
Cytoskeleton
Document Collection: 68908697
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6890/Microtubules_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Microtubules in hippocampal neuronsNoPhotographActive4/4/2023 4:30 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Microtubules (magenta) in neurons of the hippocampus, a part of the brain involved in learning and memory. Microtubules are strong, hollow fibers that provide structural support to cells.  This image was captured using Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). <Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6889">6889</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6891">6891</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6892">6892</a>.
Cytoskeleton, nerve cell
Document Collection: 68898692
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6889/Lysosomes_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Lysosomes and microtubulesNoPhotographActive4/4/2023 4:32 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Lysosomes (yellow) and detyrosinated microtubules (light blue). Lysosomes are bubblelike organelles that take in molecules and use enzymes to break them down. Microtubules are strong, hollow fibers that provide structural support to cells. The researchers who took this image found that in epithelial cells, detyrosinated microtubules are a small subset of fibers, and they concentrate lysosomes around themselves. This image was captured using Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). <Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6890">6890</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6891">6891</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6892">6892</a>.
Cytoskeleton
Document Collection: 68888687
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6888/Fibroblast3_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Chromatin in human fibroblastNoPhotographActive4/4/2022 12:01 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
The nucleus of a human fibroblast cell with chromatin—a substance made up of DNA and proteins—shown in various colors. Fibroblasts are one of the most common types of cells in mammalian connective tissue, and they play a key role in wound healing and tissue repair. This image was captured using Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). <Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6887">6887</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6893">6893</a>.
Document Collection: 68878682
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6887/Fibroblast2_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Chromatin in human fibroblastNoPhotographActive4/4/2022 11:59 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
The nucleus of a human fibroblast cell with chromatin—a substance made up of DNA and proteins—shown in various colors. Fibroblasts are one of the most common types of cells in mammalian connective tissue, and they play a key role in wound healing and tissue repair. This image was captured using Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). <Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6888">6888</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6893">6893</a>.
Document Collection: 68868678
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6886/CellMigrationScreenshot.PNG'></DIV>Neutrophil-like cells migrating in a microfluidic chipNoVideoActive4/1/2022 4:13 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Neutrophil-like  cells (blue) in a microfluidic chip preferentially migrating toward LTB4 over fMLP. A neutrophil is a type of white blood cell that is part of the immune system and helps the body fight infection. Both LTB4 and fMLP are molecules involved in immune response. Microfluidic chips are small devices containing microscopic channels, and they are used in a range of applications, from basic research on cells to pathogen detection. The scale bar in this video is 500μm.
Chemotaxis, microfluidics, cell migration, immunology, sepsis
Document Collection: 68518666
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6851/HimastatinStill.PNG'></DIV>Himastatin, 360-degree viewNoVideoActive3/7/2022 4:12 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A 360-degree view of the molecule himastatin, which was first isolated from the bacterium <em>Streptomyces himastatinicus</em>. Himastatin shows antibiotic activity. The researchers who created this video developed a new, more concise way to synthesize himastatin so it can be studied more easily.
<Br><Br>
More information about the research that produced this video can be found in the <em>Science</em> paper <a href="https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abm6509">“Total synthesis of himastatin”</a> by D’Angelo et al.
<Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6848">6848</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6850">6850</a>.
antibiotics, bacteria
Document Collection: 68508661
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6850/HimastatinWithBacteria_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Himastatin and bacteriaNoPhotographActive3/7/2022 4:11 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A model of the molecule himastatin overlaid on an image of <em>Bacillus subtilis bacteria</em>. Scientists first isolated himastatin from the bacterium <em>Streptomyces himastatinicus</em>, and the molecule shows antibiotic activity. The researchers who created this image developed a new, more concise way to synthesize himastatin so it can be studied more easily. They also tested the effects of himastatin and derivatives of the molecule on <em>B. subtilis</em>.
<Br><Br>
More information about the research that produced this image can be found in the <em>Science</em> paper <a href="https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abm6509">“Total synthesis of himastatin”</a> by D’Angelo et al.
<Br><Br>
Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6848">6848</a> and video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6851">6851</a>.

antibiotics
Document Collection: 68488656
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6848/Movassaghi-HimastatinMol_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>HimastatinNoIllustrationActive3/7/2022 4:09 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A model of the molecule himastatin, which was first isolated from the bacterium <em>Streptomyces himastatinicus</em>. Himastatin shows antibiotic activity. The researchers who created this image developed a new, more concise way to synthesize himastatin so it can be studied more easily.
<Br><Br>
More information about the research that produced this image can be found in the <em>Science</em> paper <a href="https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abm6509">“Total synthesis of himastatin”</a> by D’Angelo et al.
<Br><Br>
Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6850">6850</a> and video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6851">6851</a>.
antibiotics, bacteria
Document Collection: 68118614
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6811/6811_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Fruit fly egg chamberNoPhotographActive2/18/2022 1:32 PMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A fruit fly (<em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>) egg chamber with microtubules shown in green and actin filaments shown in red. Egg chambers are multicellular structures in fruit flies ovaries that each give rise to a single egg. Microtubules and actin filaments give the chambers structure and shape. This image was captured using a confocal microscope.
<Br><Br> More information on the research that produced this image can be found in the  <em> Current Biology</em> paper <a href="https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(21)00669-2?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982221006692%3Fshowall%3Dtrue">"Gatekeeper function for Short stop at the ring canals of the <em>Drosophila</em> ovary"</a> by Lu et al.
Oocytes, research organisms
Document Collection: 68108609
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6810/Fruit%20fly%20ovarioles_6810_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Fruit fly ovariolesNoPhotographActive1/21/2022 10:51 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Three fruit fly (<em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>) ovarioles (yellow, blue, and magenta) with egg cells visible inside them. Ovarioles are tubes in the reproductive systems of female insects. Egg cells form at one end of an ovariole and complete their development as they reach the other end, as shown in the yellow wild-type ovariole. This process requires an important protein that is missing in the blue and magenta ovarioles. This image was created using confocal microscopy. <Br><Br>
More information on the research that produced this image can be found in the  <em> Current Biology</em> paper <a href="https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(21)00669-2?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982221006692%3Fshowall%3Dtrue">“Gatekeeper function for Short stop at the ring canals of the <em>Drosophila</em> ovary”</a> by Lu et al.
Oocytes, oogenesis, research organisms
Document Collection: 68098604
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6809/Drosophila%20ooplasmic%20streaming_T.jpg'></DIV>Fruit fly egg ooplasmic streamingNoPhotographActive1/21/2022 10:52 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Two fruit fly  (<em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>) egg cells, one on each side of the central black line. The colorful swirls show the circular movement of cytoplasm—called ooplasmic streaming—that occurs in late egg cell development in wild-type (right) and mutant (left) oocytes. This image was captured using confocal microscopy. <Br><Br>
More information on the research that produced this image can be found in the <em>Journal of Cell Biology</em> paper <a href="https://rupress.org/jcb/article/217/10/3497/120275/Ooplasmic-flow-cooperates-with-transport-and">“Ooplasmic flow cooperates with transport and anchorage in <em>Drosophila</em> oocyte posterior determination”</a> by Lu et al.
Oocytes, oogenesis, research organisms
Document Collection: 68088599
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6808/Drosophila%203rd%20instar%20larval%20brain%20expressing%20neuronal%20tubulin-Wen%20Lu%20and%20Vladimir%20I.%20Gelfand_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Fruit fly larvae brains showing tubulinNoPhotographActive1/20/2022 2:49 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Two fruit fly (<em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>) larvae brains with neurons expressing fluorescently tagged tubulin protein. Tubulin makes up strong, hollow fibers called microtubules that play important roles in neuron growth and migration during brain development. This image was captured using confocal microscopy, and the color indicates the position of the neurons within the brain.
Nerve cells, research organisms, confocal laser scanning microscope
Document Collection: 68078594
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6807/6807_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Fruit fly ovariesNoPhotographActive1/21/2022 10:54 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Fruit fly (<em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>) ovaries with DNA shown in magenta and actin filaments shown in light blue. This image was captured using a confocal laser scanning microscope. <Br><Br>
Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6806">6806</a>.
Ovary, research organisms
Document Collection: 68068589
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6806/Wild-type%20and%20mutant%20fruit%20fly%20ovaries_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Wild-type and mutant fruit fly ovariesNoPhotographActive1/21/2022 10:55 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
The two large, central, round shapes are ovaries from a typical fruit fly (<em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>). The small butterfly-like structures surrounding them are fruit fly ovaries where researchers suppressed the expression of a gene that controls microtubule polymerization and is necessary for normal development. This image was captured using a confocal laser scanning microscope. <Br><Br>
Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6807">6807</a>.
Ovary, research organisms
Document Collection: 68058586
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6805/Staats%20staph%20aureus%20aggregates.png'></DIV>Staphylococcus aureus aggregating upon contact with synovial fluid NoVideoActive10/18/2023 10:58 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> bacteria (green) grouping together upon contact with synovial fluid—a viscous substance found in joints. The formation of groups can help protect the bacteria from immune system defenses and from antibiotics, increasing the likelihood of an infection. This video is a 1-hour time lapse and was captured using a confocal laser scanning microscope.
<Br><Br>
More information about the research that produced this video can be found in the <em>Journal of Bacteriology</em> paper <a href="https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/jb.00451-22">"<em>In Vitro</em> Staphylococcal Aggregate Morphology and Protection from Antibiotics Are Dependent on Distinct Mechanisms Arising from Postsurgical Joint Components and Fluid Motion"</a> by Staats et al.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6803">6803</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6804">6804</a>.
bacterium
Document Collection: 68048581
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6804/S.%20aureus%20in%20the%20porous%20coating%20of%20a%20femoral%20stem_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Staphylococcus aureus in the porous coating of a femoral hip stemNoPhotographActive10/18/2023 10:56 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> bacteria (blue) on the porous coating of a femoral hip stem used in hip replacement surgery. The relatively rough surface of an implant is a favorable environment for bacteria to attach and grow. This can lead to the development of biofilms, which can cause infections. The researchers who took this image are working to understand where biofilms are likely to develop. This knowledge could support the prevention and treatment of infections. A scanning electron microscope was used to capture this image.
<Br><Br>More information on the research that produced this image can be found in the <em>Antibiotics</em> paper<a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/10/8/889"> "Free-floating aggregate and single-cell-initiated biofilms of  <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>" </a>by Gupta et al.
<Br><Br>Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6803">6803</a> and video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6805">6805</a>.
Electron microscopy, SEM, bacterium, pink, blue
Document Collection: 68038575
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6803/SF%20Aggregates%20on%20patterned%20surfaces-blue_green_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Staphylococcus aureus aggregates on microstructured titanium surfaceNoPhotographActive10/18/2023 10:58 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Groups of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> bacteria (blue) attached to a microstructured titanium surface (green) that mimics an orthopedic implant used in joint replacement. The attachment of pre-formed groups of bacteria may lead to infections because the groups can tolerate antibiotics and evade the immune system. This image was captured using a scanning electron microscope.
<Br><Br>More information on the research that produced this image can be found in the <em>Antibiotics</em> paper<a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/10/8/889"> "Free-floating aggregate and single-cell-initiated biofilms of  <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>" </a>by Gupta et al.
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Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6804">6804</a> and video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6805">6805</a>.
Electron microscopy, SEM, bacterium, blue, green
Document Collection: 68028570
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6802/Antibiotic-Surviving%20Colonies_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Antibiotic-surviving bacteriaNoPhotographActive10/18/2023 10:59 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Colonies of bacteria growing despite high concentrations of antibiotics. These colonies are visible both by eye, as seen on the left, and by bioluminescence imaging, as seen on the right. The bioluminescent color indicates the metabolic activity of these bacteria, with their red centers indicating high metabolism. <Br><Br>
More information about the research that produced this image can be found in the <em> Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy</em> paper <a href="https://journals.asm.org/doi/full/10.1128/AAC.00623-20">“Novel aminoglycoside-tolerant phoenix colony variants of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>”</a> by Sindeldecker et al.
Antibiotic resistance, antibiotic resistant, bacterium
Document Collection: 68018567
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6801/Macrophage%20activation.png'></DIV>“Two-faced” Janus particle activating a macrophageNoVideoActive8/18/2023 8:40 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A macrophage—a type of immune cell that engulfs invaders—“eats” and is activated by a “two-faced” Janus particle. The particle is called “two-faced” because each of its two hemispheres is coated with a different type of molecule, shown here in red and cyan. During macrophage activation, a transcription factor tagged with a green fluorescence protein (NF-κB) gradually moves from the cell’s cytoplasm into its nucleus and causes DNA transcription.
The distribution of molecules on “two-faced” Janus particles can be altered to control the activation of immune cells. Details on this “geometric manipulation” strategy can be found in the <em> Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</em> paper <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/116/50/25106.long">"Geometrical reorganization of Dectin-1 and TLR2 on single phagosomes alters their synergistic immune signaling" </a> by Li et al. and the <em> Scientific Reports</em> paper<a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-92910-9"> "Spatial organization of FcγR and TLR2/1 on phagosome membranes differentially regulates their synergistic and inhibitory receptor crosstalk"</a> by Li et al.
This video was captured using epi-fluorescence microscopy.
<Br><Br>Related to video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6800">6800</a>.
White blood cell, immune system, NF-kappaB, NF-KB, TLR-2
Document Collection: 68008564
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6800/Magnetic%20particle%20switch%20for%20T%20cell%20activation.png'></DIV>Magnetic Janus particle activating a T cellNoVideoActive8/17/2023 1:23 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
A Janus particle being used to activate a T cell, a type of immune cell. A Janus particle is a specialized microparticle with different physical properties on its surface, and this one is coated with nickel on one hemisphere and anti-CD3 antibodies (light blue) on the other. The nickel enables the Janus particle to be moved using a magnet, and the antibodies bind to the T cell and activate it. The T cell in this video was loaded with calcium-sensitive dye to visualize calcium influx, which indicates activation. The intensity of calcium influx was color coded so that warmer color indicates higher intensity.
Being able to control Janus particles with simple magnets is a step toward controlling individual cells’ activities without complex magnetic devices.<Br><Br> More details can be found in the <em> Angewandte Chemie </em> paper <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/anie.201601211">“Remote control of T cell activation using magnetic Janus particles”</a>  by Lee et al. This video was captured using epi-fluorescence microscopy.
<Br><Br>Related to video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6801">6801</a>.
Immune system
Document Collection: 67998561
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6799/Phagosome.png'></DIV>Phagosome in macrophage cellNoVideoActive8/18/2023 8:41 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A sensor particle being engulfed by a macrophage—an immune cell—and encapsuled in a compartment called a phagosome. The phagosome then fuses with lysosomes—another type of compartment. The left video shows snowman-shaped sensor particles with fluorescent green nanoparticle “heads” and “bodies” colored red by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-donor fluorophores. The middle video visualizes light blue FRET signals that are only generated when the “snowman” sensor—the FRET-donor—fuses with the lysosomes, which are loaded with FRET-acceptors. The right video combines the other two. The videos were captured using epi-fluorescence microscopy. <Br><Br>
More details can be found in the paper <a href="https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.04.04.438376v1">“Transport motility of phagosomes on actin and microtubules regulates timing and kinetics of their maturation” </a> by Yu et al.
Immune system
Document Collection: 67988548
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6798/YeastCells8_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Yeast cells with nuclear envelopes and tubulinNoPhotographActive7/17/2023 1:07 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Yeast cells with nuclear envelopes shown in magenta and tubulin shown in light blue. The nuclear envelope defines the borders of the nucleus, which houses DNA. Tubulin is a protein that makes up microtubules—strong, hollow fibers that provide structure to cells and help direct chromosomes during cell division. This image was captured using wide-field microscopy with deconvolution.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6791">6791</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6792">6792</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6793">6793</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6794">6794</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6797">6797</a>, and videos <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6795">6795</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6796">6796</a>.
Nuclei, research organisms, pink, mitosis
Document Collection: 67978543
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6797/YeastCells7_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Yeast cells with accumulated cell wall material NoPhotographActive7/17/2023 1:08 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Yeast cells that abnormally accumulate cell wall material (blue) at their ends and, when preparing to divide, in their middles. This image was captured using wide-field microscopy with deconvolution.
<Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6791">6791</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6792">6792</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6793">6793</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6794">6794</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6798">6798</a>, and videos <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6795">6795</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6796">6796</a>.
Research organisms, purple, pink, mitosis
Document Collection: 67968541
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6796/YeastCells6-T.PNG'></DIV>Dividing yeast cells with spindle pole bodies and contractile ringsNoVideoActive1/21/2022 10:59 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
During cell division, spindle pole bodies (glowing dots) move toward the ends of yeast cells to separate copied genetic information. Contractile rings (glowing bands) form in cells’ middles and constrict to help them split. This time-lapse video was captured using wide-field microscopy with deconvolution.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6791">6791</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6792">6792</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6793">6793</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6794">6794</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6797">6797</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6798">6798</a>, and video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6795">6795</a>.
Mitosis, research organisms
Document Collection: 67958539
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6795/YeastCells5-T.png'></DIV>Dividing yeast cells with nuclear envelopes and spindle pole bodiesNoVideoActive7/17/2023 1:08 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Time-lapse video of yeast cells undergoing cell division. Nuclear envelopes are shown in green, and spindle pole bodies, which help pull apart copied genetic information, are shown in magenta. This video was captured using wide-field microscopy with deconvolution.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6791">6791</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6792">6792</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6793">6793</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6794">6794</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6797">6797</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6798">6798</a>, and video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6796">6796</a>.
Nucleus, nuclei, mitosis, research organisms
Document Collection: 67948533
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6794/YeastCells4_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Yeast cells with Fimbrin Fim1 NoPhotographActive1/21/2022 11:00 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Yeast cells with the protein Fimbrin Fim1 shown in magenta. This protein plays a role in cell division. This image was captured using wide-field microscopy with deconvolution.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6791">6791</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6792">6792</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6793">6793</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6797">6797</a>,  <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6798">6798</a>, and videos <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6795">6795</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6796">6796</a>.
Mitosis, research organisms, purple, cross-linking
Document Collection: 67938528
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6793/YeastCells3_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Yeast cells with endocytic actin patchesNoPhotographActive7/17/2023 1:08 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Yeast cells with endocytic actin patches (green). These patches help cells take in outside material. When a cell is in interphase, patches concentrate at its ends. During later stages of cell division, patches move to where the cell splits. This image was captured using wide-field microscopy with deconvolution.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6791">6791</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6792">6792</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6794">6794</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6797">6797</a>,  <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6798">6798</a>, and videos <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6795">6795</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6796">6796</a>.
Mitosis, research organisms
Document Collection: 67928523
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6792/YeastCells2_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Yeast cells with nuclei and contractile ringsNoPhotographActive1/21/2022 11:01 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Yeast cells with nuclei shown in green and contractile rings shown in magenta. Nuclei store DNA, and contractile rings help cells divide. This image was captured using wide-field microscopy with deconvolution.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6791">6791</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6793">6793</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6794">6794</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6797">6797</a>,  <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6798">6798</a>, and videos <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6795">6795</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6796">6796</a>.
Nucleus, mitosis, research organisms
Document Collection: 67918518
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6791/YeastCells1_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Yeast cells entering mitosisNoPhotographActive1/21/2022 11:01 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
 Yeast cells entering mitosis, also known as cell division. The green and magenta dots are two proteins that play important roles in mitosis. They show where the cells will split. This image was captured using wide-field microscopy with deconvolution.
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Related to images <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6792">6792</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6793">6793</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6794">6794</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6797">6797</a>,  <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6798">6798</a>, and videos <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6795">6795</a> and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6796">6796</a>.

Research organisms
Document Collection: 67908514
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6790/CellDiv-Death-Thumb.PNG'></DIV>Cell division and cell deathNoVideoActive12/27/2021 11:57 AMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Two cells over a 2-hour period. The one on the bottom left goes through programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. The one on the top right goes through cell division, also called mitosis. This video was captured using a confocal microscope.
microscopy
Document Collection: 67898509
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6789/Two%20mouse%20fibroblast%20cells_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Two mouse fibroblast cellsNoPhotographActive12/27/2021 11:20 AMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Two mouse fibroblasts, one of the most common types of cells in mammalian connective tissue. They play a key role in wound healing and tissue repair. This image was captured using structured illumination microscopy.
Mice, SIM, research organism
Document Collection: 67888501
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6788/ITC_MitoMeio_layout%20(1)_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Mitosis and meiosis compared-labeledNoIllustrationActive1/21/2022 11:01 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Meiosis is used to make sperm and egg cells. During meiosis, a cell's chromosomes are copied once, but the cell divides twice. During mitosis, the chromosomes are copied once, and the cell divides once. For simplicity, cells are illustrated with only three pairs of chromosomes.<Br><Br> See image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=1333">1333</a> for an unlabeled version of this illustration.
Alt text: On the left, a cell goes through the stages of mitosis to split into two cells that each have two sets of chromosomes. On the right, a cell goes through the phases of meiosis to divide into four cells that each have a single set of chromosomes.
Document Collection: 67818483
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6781/MouseBrainVideo_Thumb.png'></DIV>Video of Calling Cards in a mouse brainNoVideoActive7/17/2023 12:43 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
The green spots in this mouse brain are cells labeled with Calling Cards, a technology that records molecular events in brain cells as they mature. Understanding these processes during healthy development can guide further research into what goes wrong in cases of neuropsychiatric disorders. Also fluorescently labeled in this video are neurons (red) and nuclei (blue). Calling Cards and its application are described in the <em>Cell</em> paper “<a href=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009286742030814X>Self-Reporting Transposons Enable Simultaneous Readout of Gene Expression and Transcription Factor Binding in Single Cells</a>” by Moudgil et al.; and the <em>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</em> paper “<a href=https://www.pnas.org/content/117/18/10003>A viral toolkit for recording transcription factor–DNA interactions in live mouse tissues</a>” by Cammack et al. This video was created for the <em>NIH Director’s Blog</em> post <a href=https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2021/08/24/the-amazing-brain-tracking-molecular-events-with-calling-cards-in-the-living-brain>The Amazing Brain: Tracking Molecular Events with Calling Cards</a>.
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Related to image <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6780>6780</a>.
nerve cells, neuroscience
Document Collection: 67808477
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6780/AllenYen_mousebrain_slidescan_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Calling Cards in a mouse brainNoPhotographActive7/17/2023 12:43 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
The green spots in this mouse brain are cells labeled with Calling Cards, a technology that records molecular events in brain cells as they mature. Understanding these processes during healthy development can guide further research into what goes wrong in cases of neuropsychiatric disorders. Also fluorescently labeled in this image are neurons (red) and nuclei (blue). Calling Cards and its application are described in the <em>Cell</em> paper “<a href=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009286742030814X>Self-Reporting Transposons Enable Simultaneous Readout of Gene Expression and Transcription Factor Binding in Single Cells</a>” by Moudgil et al.; and the <em>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</em> paper “<a href=https://www.pnas.org/content/117/18/10003>A viral toolkit for recording transcription factor–DNA interactions in live mouse tissues</a>” by Cammack et al. The technology was also featured in the <em>NIH Director’s Blog</em> post <a href=https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2021/08/24/the-amazing-brain-tracking-molecular-events-with-calling-cards-in-the-living-brain/>The Amazing Brain: Tracking Molecular Events with Calling Cards</a>.
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Related to video <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6781>6781</a>.
nerve cells, neuroscience
Document Collection: 67798470
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6779/BrainWave_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Brain waves of a patient anesthetized with propofolNoIllustrationActive8/24/2021 12:39 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A representation of a patient’s brain waves after receiving the anesthetic propofol. All anesthetics create brain wave changes that vary depending on the patient’s age and the type and dose of anesthetic used. These changes are visible in raw electroencephalogram (EEG) readings, but they’re easier to interpret using a spectrogram where the signals are broken down by time (x-axis), frequency (y-axis), and power (color scale). This spectrogram shows the changes in brain waves before, during, and after propofol-induced anesthesia. The patient is unconscious from minute 5, upon propofol administration, through minute 69 (change in power and frequency). But, between minutes 35 and 48, the patient fell into a profound state of unconsciousness (disappearance of dark red oscillations between 8 to 12 Hz), which required the anesthesiologist to adjust the rate of propofol administration. The propofol was stopped at minute 62 and the patient woke up around minute 69.
Anesthesia
Document Collection: 67778468
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6777/EMCVideo_Thumbnail.png'></DIV>Human endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complexNoVideoActive12/6/2021 3:02 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A 3D model of the human endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC) that identifies its nine essential subunits. The EMC plays an important role in making membrane proteins, which are essential for all cellular processes. This is the first atomic-level depiction of the EMC. Its structure was obtained using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy.
ER, cryo-EM
Document Collection: 67768465
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6776/ZebrafishCellTracking_Thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Tracking cells in a gastrulating zebrafish embryoNoVideoActive9/10/2021 1:01 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
During development, a zebrafish embryo is transformed from a ball of cells into a recognizable body plan by sweeping convergence and extension cell movements. This process is called gastrulation. Each line in this video represents the movement of a single zebrafish embryo cell over the course of 3 hours. The video was created using time-lapse confocal microscopy.

Related to image <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6775>6775</a>.
Research organisms, microscope
Document Collection: 67758460
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6775/ZebrafishCellTracking_T.jpg'></DIV>Tracking embryonic zebrafish cellsNoPhotographActive9/10/2021 1:00 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
To better understand cell movements in developing embryos, researchers isolated cells from early zebrafish embryos and grew them as clusters. Provided with the right signals, the clusters replicated some cell movements seen in intact embryos. Each line in this image depicts the movement of a single cell. The image was created using time-lapse confocal microscopy.

Related to video <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6776>6776</a>.
Research organisms, microscope
Document Collection: 67748455
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6774/ER_Abnormalities2_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Endoplasmic reticulum abnormalities 2NoPhotographActive9/9/2021 2:17 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Human cells with the gene that codes for the protein FIT2 deleted. After an experimental intervention, they are expressing a nonfunctional version of FIT2, shown in green. The lack of functional FIT2 affected the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the nonfunctional protein clustered in ER membrane aggregates, seen as large bright-green spots. Lipid droplets are shown in red, and the nucleus is visible in gray. This image was captured using a confocal microscope. Related to image <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6773>6773</a>.
Abnormality, microscopy, homeostasis, lipids
Document Collection: 67738450
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6773/ER_Abnormalities_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Endoplasmic reticulum abnormalitiesNoPhotographActive9/9/2021 2:03 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Human cells with the gene that codes for the protein FIT2 deleted. Green indicates an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein. The lack of FIT2 affected the structure of the ER and caused the resident protein to cluster in ER membrane aggregates, seen as large, bright-green spots. Red shows where the degradation of cell parts—called autophagy—is taking place, and the nucleus is visible in blue. This image was captured using a confocal microscope. Related to image <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6774>6774</a>.
Abnormality, microscopy, homeostasis
Document Collection: 67728442
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6772/Composite_1_Hmg1gfp_2_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Yeast cells responding to a glucose shortageNoPhotographActive6/27/2021 9:51 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
These yeast cells were exposed to a glucose (sugar) shortage. This caused the cells to compartmentalize HMGCR (green)—an enzyme involved in making cholesterol—to a patch on the nuclear envelope next to the vacuole/lysosome (purple). This process enhanced HMGCR activity and helped the yeast adapt to the glucose shortage. Researchers hope that understanding how yeast regulate cholesterol could ultimately lead to new ways to treat high cholesterol in people. This image was captured using a fluorescence microscope.
Document Collection: 67718440
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6771/MosquitoLarvae_VideoStill.PNG'></DIV>Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvaeNoVideoActive4/28/2023 3:19 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Mosquito larvae with genes edited by CRISPR swimming in water. This species of mosquito, <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em>, can transmit West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and avian malaria, among other diseases. The researchers who took this video optimized the gene-editing tool CRISPR for <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em> that could ultimately help stop the mosquitoes from spreading pathogens.

The work is described in the <em>Nature Communications</em> paper "<a href=https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-23239-0>Optimized CRISPR tools and site-directed transgenesis towards gene drive development in <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em> mosquitoes</a>" by Feng et al.

Related to images <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6769>6769</a> and <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6770>6770</a>.

Insects, bugs, larva
Document Collection: 67708435
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6770/Group-MosquitoLarvae_3_1200x675px_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Group of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvaeNoPhotographActive7/6/2021 3:00 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Mosquito larvae with genes edited by CRISPR. This species of mosquito, <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em>, can transmit West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and avian malaria, among other diseases. The researchers who took this image developed a gene-editing toolkit for <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em> that could ultimately help stop the mosquitoes from spreading pathogens.

The work is described in the <em>Nature Communications</em> paper "<a href=https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-23239-0>Optimized CRISPR tools and site-directed transgenesis towards gene drive development in <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em> mosquitoes</a>" by Feng et al.

Related to image <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6769>6769</a> and video <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6771>6771</a>.  
Insects, bugs
Document Collection: 67698430
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6769/MosquitoLarva_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvaNoPhotographActive7/6/2021 3:00 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A mosquito larva with genes edited by CRISPR. The red-orange glow is a fluorescent protein used to track the edits. This species of mosquito, <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em>, can transmit West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and avian malaria, among other diseases. The researchers who took this image developed a gene-editing toolkit for <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em> that could ultimately help stop the mosquitoes from spreading pathogens.

The work is described in the <em>Nature Communications</em> paper "<a href=https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-23239-0>Optimized CRISPR tools and site-directed transgenesis towards gene drive development in <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em> mosquitoes</a>" by Feng et al.

Related to image <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6770>6770</a> and video <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6771>6771</a>.  
Insects, bugs, larvae
Document Collection: 67688422
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6768/5w0p_assembly-T.jpeg'></DIV>Rhodopsin bound to visual arrestinNoIllustrationActive6/27/2021 3:16 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Rhodopsin is a pigment in the rod cells of the retina (back of the eye). It is extremely light-sensitive, supporting vision in low-light conditions. Here, it is attached to arrestin, a protein that sends signals in the body. This structure was determined using an X-ray free electron laser.
ribbon diagram
Document Collection: 67678403
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6767/Space-fillingModelCCD-1_t.png'></DIV>Space-filling model of a cefotaxime-CCD-1 complexNoIllustrationActive5/16/2022 11:26 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
CCD-1 is an enzyme produced by the bacterium <em>Clostridioides difficile</em> that helps it resist antibiotics. Using X-ray crystallography, researchers determined the structure of a complex between CCD-1 and the antibiotic cefotaxime (purple, yellow, and blue molecule). The structure revealed that CCD-1 provides extensive hydrogen bonding (shown as dotted lines) and stabilization of the antibiotic in the active site, leading to efficient degradation of the antibiotic. 
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Related to images <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6764">6764</a>, <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6765">6765</a>, and <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6766">6766</a>.
Xray, resistance
Document Collection: 67668394
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6766/RibbonDiagramCCD-1_T.png'></DIV>Ribbon diagram of a cefotaxime-CCD-1 complexNoIllustrationActive5/16/2022 11:24 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
CCD-1 is an enzyme produced by the bacterium <em>Clostridioides difficile</em> that helps it resist antibiotics. Using X-ray crystallography, researchers determined the structure of a CCD-1 molecule and a molecule of the antibiotic cefotaxime bound together. The structure revealed that CCD-1 provides extensive hydrogen bonding and stabilization of the antibiotic in the active site, leading to efficient degradation of the antibiotic.
<Br><Br>
Related to images <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6764">6764</a>, <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6765">6765</a>, and <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6767">6767</a>.
Xray, resistance
Document Collection: 67658391
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6765/XrayDiffraction-T.png'></DIV>X-ray diffraction pattern from a crystallized cefotaxime-CCD-1 complexNoPhotographActive5/16/2022 11:26 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
CCD-1 is an enzyme produced by the bacterium <em>Clostridioides difficile</em> that helps it resist antibiotics. Researchers crystallized complexes where a CCD-1 molecule and a molecule of the antibiotic cefotaxime were bound together. Then, they shot X-rays at the complexes to determine their structure—a process known as X-ray crystallography. This image shows the X-ray diffraction pattern of a complex. 
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Related to images <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6764">6764</a>, <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6766">6766</a>, and <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6767">6767</a>.
Xray, resistance
Document Collection: 67648388
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6764/CrystalCCD-1-T.png'></DIV>Crystals of CCD-1 in complex with cefotaximeNoPhotographActive5/16/2022 11:26 AMBigler, Abbey (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
CCD-1 is an enzyme produced by the bacterium <em>Clostridioides difficile</em> that helps it resist antibiotics. Here, researchers crystallized bound pairs of CCD-1 molecules and molecules of the antibiotic cefotaxime. This enabled their structure to be studied using X-ray crystallography. 
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Related to images <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6765">6765</a>, <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6766">6766</a>, and <a href="/Pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageID2=6767">6767</a>.
Xray, resistance
Document Collection: 67628382
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6762/5ejx_assembly-1.jpeg'></DIV>CCP enzymeNoIllustrationActive6/23/2021 9:54 AMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
The enzyme CCP is found in the mitochondria of baker’s yeast. Scientists study the chemical reactions that CCP triggers, which involve a water molecule, iron, and oxygen. This structure was determined using an X-ray free electron laser.
Ribbon diagram, protein
Document Collection: 67568377
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6756/IGB%20Tagged%20Bees%20Robinson%20Lab_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Honeybees marked with paintNoPhotographActive4/6/2021 12:32 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Researchers doing behavioral experiments with honeybees sometimes use paint or enamel to give individual bees distinguishing marks. The elaborate social structure and impressive learning and navigation abilities of bees make them good models for behavioral and neurobiological research. Since the sequencing of the honeybee genome, published in 2006, bees have been used increasingly for research into the molecular basis for social interaction and other complex behaviors.
Research organisms, insects
Document Collection: 67558372
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6755/IGB%20Bee%20Brain%20Robinson%20Lab_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Honeybee brainNoPhotographActive9/23/2021 11:05 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Insect brains, like the honeybee brain shown here, are very different in shape from human brains. Despite that, bee and human brains have a lot in common, including many of the genes and neurochemicals they rely on in order to function. The bright-green spots in this image indicate the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme that allows the brain to produce dopamine. Dopamine is involved in many important functions, such as the ability to experience pleasure. This image was captured using confocal microscopy.
Document Collection: 67548336
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6754/fruit%20fly%20nurse%20cell_rs_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Fruit fly nurse cells transporting their contents during egg developmentNoVideoActive7/20/2021 11:43 AMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
In many animals, the egg cell develops alongside sister cells. These sister cells are called nurse cells in the fruit fly (<em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>), and their job is to “nurse” an immature egg cell, or oocyte. Toward the end of oocyte development, the nurse cells transfer all their contents into the oocyte in a process called nurse cell dumping. This video captures this transfer, showing significant shape changes on the part of the nurse cells (blue), which are powered by wavelike activity of the protein myosin (red). Researchers created the video using a confocal laser scanning microscope.  Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6753">6753</a>.
Oogenesis
Document Collection: 67538327
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6753/fruit%20fly%20nurse%20cell_rs_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Fruit fly nurse cells during egg developmentNoPhotographActive7/20/2021 11:09 AMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
In many animals, the egg cell develops alongside sister cells. These sister cells are called nurse cells in the fruit fly (<em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>), and their job is to “nurse” an immature egg cell, or oocyte. Toward the end of oocyte development, the nurse cells transfer all their contents into the oocyte in a process called nurse cell dumping. This process involves significant shape changes on the part of the nurse cells (blue), which are powered by wavelike activity of the protein myosin (red). This image was captured using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Related to video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6754">6754</a>.
Oogenesis
Document Collection: 67528322
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6752/Ghosh%20et%20al_SciPak%20multimedia%202_2.24.2021_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Petri dishNoPhotographActive3/24/2021 12:29 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
The white circle in this image is a Petri dish, named for its inventor, Julius Richard Petri. These dishes are one of the most common pieces of equipment in biology labs, where researchers use them to grow cells.
Document Collection: 67518317
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6751/Ghosh%20et%20al_SciPak%20multimedia%203_2.24.2021_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Petri dish containing C. elegansNoPhotographActive3/24/2021 1:46 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This Petri dish contains microscopic roundworms called <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i>. Researchers used these particular worms to study how <i>C. elegans</i> senses the color of light in its environment.
Document Collection: 67508312
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6750/Ghosh%20et%20al_SciPak%20multimedia%201_2.24.2021_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>C. elegans with blue and yellow lights in the backgroundNoPhotographActive3/24/2021 1:44 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
These microscopic roundworms, called <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i>, lack eyes and the opsin proteins used by visual systems to detect colors. However, researchers found that the worms can still sense the color of light in a way that enables them to avoid pigmented toxins made by bacteria. This image was captured using a stereo microscope.
Document Collection: 67488215
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6748/PRs%20retinal%20organoid%20og_large_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Human retinal organoidNoPhotographActive3/18/2021 10:46 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A replica of a human retina grown from stem cells. It shows rod photoreceptors (nerve cells responsible for dark vision) in green and red/green cones (nerve cells responsible for red and green color vision) in red. The cell nuclei are stained blue. This image was captured using a confocal microscope.
Eye, neurons
Document Collection: 66618189
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6661/stiched_fish_blending_high_contrast_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Zebrafish embryo showing vasculatureNoPhotographActive3/15/2021 10:12 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A zebrafish embryo. The blue areas are cell bodies, the green lines are blood vessels, and the red glow is blood. This image was created by stitching together five individual images captured with a hyperspectral multipoint confocal fluorescence microscope that was developed at the Eliceiri Lab.
Document Collection: 66258183
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6625/RNA_Folding%20-%20Copy_Moment2.jpg'></DIV>RNA folding in actionNoVideoActive3/8/2021 11:54 AMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
An RNA molecule dynamically refolds itself as it is being synthesized. When the RNA is short, it ties itself into a “knot” (dark purple). For this domain to slip its knot, about 5 seconds into the video, another newly forming region (fuchsia) wiggles down to gain a “toehold.” About 9 seconds in, the temporarily knotted domain untangles and unwinds. Finally, at about 23 seconds, the strand starts to be reconfigured into the shape it needs to do its job in the cell.
Ribonucleic acid, 3D folding, R2D2, Reconstructing RNA Dynamics from Data
Document Collection: 66148143
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6614/CR_Brain_Spanish_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Los ritmos circadianos y el núcleo supraquiasmáticoNoIllustrationActive12/6/2023 11:12 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Los ritmos circadianos son cambios físicos, mentales y de comportamiento que siguen un ciclo de 24 horas. Los ritmos circadianos se ven influenciados por la luz y están regulados por el núcleo supraquiasmático del cerebro, a veces denominado el reloj principal.

<Br><Br>
Vea <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6613">6613</a> para la versión en inglés de esta infografía.
hipotálamo
Document Collection: 66138138
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6613/CR_BrainSIZED_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Circadian rhythms and the SCN NoIllustrationActive2/16/2021 10:13 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a 24-hour cycle. Circadian rhythms are influenced by light and regulated by the brain’s suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), sometimes referred to as a master clock.

Learn more in NIGMS’ circadian rhythms <a href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/fact-sheets/Pages/circadian-rhythms.aspx">fact sheet</a>.

See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6614">6614 </a> for the Spanish version of this infographic.
hypothalamus
Document Collection: 66128133
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6612/CR_TimelineSPANISH_Opt3%20SPANISH_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Ciclo circadiano de un adolescente típico NoIllustrationActive12/6/2023 11:07 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Los ritmos circadianos son cambios físicos, mentales y conductuales que siguen un ciclo de 24 horas. Los ritmos circadianos típicos conducen a un nivel alto de energía durante la mitad del día (de 10 a.m. a 1 p.m.) y un bajón por la tarde. De noche, los ritmos circadianos hacen que la hormona melatonina aumente, lo que hace que la persona se sienta somnolienta.


<Br><Br>
Vea <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6611">6611</a> para la versión en inglés de esta infografía.
reloj interno, temperatura corporal, energía
Document Collection: 66118128
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6611/CR_TeenTimeline_Opt3B_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Average teen circadian cycleNoIllustrationActive1/5/2024 11:54 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Circadian rhythms are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a 24-hour cycle. Typical circadian rhythms lead to high energy during the middle of the day (10 a.m. to 1 p.m.) and an afternoon slump. At night, circadian rhythms cause the hormone melatonin to rise, making a person sleepy.
<Br><Br>
Learn more in NIGMS’ circadian rhythms <a href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/fact-sheets/Pages/circadian-rhythms.aspx">featured topics page</a>.

<Br><Br>See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6612">6612</a> for the Spanish version of this infographic.
internal clock, body temperature, energy
Document Collection: 66098113
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6609/Figure2.jpg'></DIV>3D reconstruction of the Golgi apparatus in a pancreas cellNoVideoActive2/3/2021 10:31 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Researchers used cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to capture images of a rat pancreas cell that were then compiled and color-coded to produce a 3D reconstruction. Visible features include the folded sacs of the Golgi apparatus (copper), transport vesicles (medium-sized dark-blue circles), microtubules (neon-green rods), a mitochondria membrane (pink), ribosomes (small pale-yellow circles), endoplasmic reticulum (aqua), and lysosomes (large yellowish-green circles). See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6606">6606</a> for a still image from the video.
Organelles, Golgi body
Document Collection: 66088108
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6608/Figure3A_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Cryo-ET cross-section of a rat pancreas cellNoPhotographActive2/3/2021 10:35 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
On the left, a cross-section slice of a rat pancreas cell captured using cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). On the right, a 3D, color-coded version of the image highlighting cell structures. Visible features include microtubules (neon-green rods), ribosomes (small yellow circles), and vesicles (dark-blue circles). These features are surrounded by the partially visible endoplasmic reticulum (light blue). The black line at the bottom right of the left image represents 200 nm. Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6607">6607</a>.
Organelles
Document Collection: 66078103
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6607/Figure3B_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Cryo-ET cell cross-section visualizing insulin vesiclesNoPhotographActive2/3/2021 10:34 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
On the left, a cross-section slice of a rat pancreas cell captured using cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). On the right, a color-coded, 3D version of the image highlighting cell structures. Visible features include insulin vesicles (purple rings), insulin crystals (gray circles), microtubules (green rods), ribosomes (small yellow circles). The black line at the bottom right of the left image represents 200 nm. Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6608">6608</a>.
Organelles
Document Collection: 66068098
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6606/Figure2_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Cryo-ET cross-section of the Golgi apparatusNoPhotographActive2/3/2021 11:27 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
On the left, a cross-section slice of a rat pancreas cell captured using cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). On the right, a 3D, color-coded version of the image highlighting cell structures. Visible features include the folded sacs of the Golgi apparatus (copper), transport vesicles (medium-sized dark-blue circles), microtubules (neon green), ribosomes (small pale-yellow circles), and lysosomes (large yellowish-green circles). Black line (bottom right of the left image) represents 200 nm. This image is a still from video <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6609">6609</a>.
Organelles, Golgi body
Document Collection: 66058093
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6605/SXT%20cell_mod_1280px%20teal_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Soft X-ray tomography of a pancreatic beta cellNoIllustrationActive2/2/2021 11:31 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A color-coded, 3D model of a rat pancreatic β cell. This type of cell produces insulin, a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar. Visible are mitochondria (pink), insulin vesicles (yellow), the nucleus (dark blue), and the plasma membrane (teal). This model was created based on soft X-ray tomography (SXT) images.
pancreas, diabetes
Document Collection: 66048037
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6604/Enzyme2LactaseV3circularPartial_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Enzyme reactionNoIllustrationActive1/28/2021 7:24 AMMcCulley, Jennifer (NIH/NIDCD) [C]
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by reducing the amount of energy needed for the reactions. The substrate (lactose) binds to the active site of the enzyme (lactase) and is converted into products (sugars).
enzyme-substrate complex
Document Collection: 66038032
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6603/AminoAcidtoProteinV2dec28-01_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Protein formationNoIllustrationInactive7/28/2021 1:59 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Proteins are 3D structures made up of smaller units. DNA is transcribed to RNA, which in turn is translated into amino acids. Amino acids form a protein strand, which has sections of corkscrew-like coils, called alpha helices, and other sections that fold flat, called beta sheets. The protein then goes through complex folding to produce the 3D structure.
alpha helix, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure
Document Collection: 66028014
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6602/immune%20cell%20acid%20destroys%20bacterial%20proteins_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>See how immune cell acid destroys bacterial proteinsNoVideoActive1/27/2021 12:36 PMMcCulley, Jennifer (NIH/NIDCD) [C]
This animation shows the effect of exposure to hypochlorous acid, which is found in certain types of immune cells, on bacterial proteins. The proteins unfold and stick to one another, leading to cell death.
Document Collection: 66018011
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6601/atomic-level%20structure%20of%20HIV%20capsid_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Atomic-level structure of the HIV capsidNoVideoActive11/14/2023 8:23 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
This animation shows atoms of the HIV capsid, the shell that encloses the virus's genetic material. Scientists determined the exact structure of the capsid using a variety of imaging techniques and analyses. They then entered this data into a supercomputer to produce this image. Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=3477">3477</a>.
Document Collection: 65988001
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6598/leg%20muscle%20simulation_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Simulation of leg muscles movingNoVideoActive1/28/2021 3:07 PMMcCulley, Jennifer (NIH/NIDCD) [C]
When we walk, muscles and nerves interact in intricate ways. This simulation, which is based on data from a six-foot-tall man, shows these interactions.
Document Collection: 65977997
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6597/PathwaysBacteriaVirus_video.jpg'></DIV>Pathways – Bacteria vs. Viruses: What's the Difference?NoVideoActive9/12/2022 11:13 AMRose, Juli (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Learn about how bacteria and viruses differ, how they each can make you sick, and how they can or cannot be treated.

Discover more resources from NIGMS’ <a href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/pathways/Pages/Home.aspx">Pathways</a> collaboration with Scholastic.
View the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTWUV6azGXE">video<img src="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/PublishingImages/exitdisclaimer.gif" alt="Link to external web site" style="border-width: 0px;"/></a> on YouTube for closed captioning.
Document Collection: 65937765
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6593/img6_cheng_confocal_nuc_t76_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Cell-like compartments from frog eggs 6 NoPhotographActive9/13/2020 11:39 AMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cell-like compartments that spontaneously emerged from scrambled frog eggs, with nuclei (blue) from frog sperm. Endoplasmic reticulum (red) and microtubules (green) are also visible. Image created using confocal microscopy.
<br>
<p>For more photos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6584">6584</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6585">6585</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6586">6586</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6591">6591</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6592">6592</a>.</p>
<p>For videos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view:&nbsp;<a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6587">6587</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6588">6588</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6589">6589</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6590">6590</a>.</p>
structure
Document Collection: 65927760
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6592/img5_cheng_confocal_nuc_t40_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Cell-like compartments from frog eggs 5 NoPhotographActive9/13/2020 11:38 AMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cell-like compartments that spontaneously emerged from scrambled frog eggs, with nuclei (blue) from frog sperm. Endoplasmic reticulum (red) and microtubules (green) are also visible. Image created using confocal microscopy.
<br>
<p>For more photos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6584">6584</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6585">6585</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6586">6586</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6591">6591</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6593">6593</a>.</p>
<p>For videos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view:&nbsp;<a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6587">6587</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6588">6588</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6589">6589</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6590">6590</a>.</p>
structure
Document Collection: 65917755
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6591/img4_cheng_confocal_nuc_t27_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Cell-like compartments from frog eggs 4NoPhotographActive9/13/2020 11:37 AMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cell-like compartments that spontaneously emerged from scrambled frog eggs, with nuclei (blue) from frog sperm. Endoplasmic reticulum (red) and microtubules (green) are also visible. Image created using confocal microscopy.
<br>
<p>For more photos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6584">6584</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6585">6585</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6586">6586</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6592">6592</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6593">6593</a>.</p>
<p>For videos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view:&nbsp;<a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6587">6587</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6588">6588</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6589">6589</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6590">6590</a>.</p>
structure
Document Collection: 65907753
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6590/Screenshot%20(4).png'></DIV>Cell-like compartments emerging from scrambled frog eggs 4NoVideoActive9/14/2020 11:16 AMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cell-like compartments that spontaneously emerged from scrambled frog eggs, with nuclei (blue) from frog sperm. Endoplasmic reticulum (red) and microtubules (green) are also visible. Video created using confocal microscopy.
<br>
<p>For more photos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6584">6584</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6585">6585</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6586">6586</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6591">6591</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6592">6592</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6593">6593</a>.</p>
<p>For videos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view:&nbsp;<a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6587">6587</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6588">6588</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6589">6589</a>.</p>
structure
Document Collection: 65897751
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6589/Screenshot%20(3).png'></DIV>Cell-like compartments emerging from scrambled frog eggs 3NoVideoActive9/13/2020 11:28 AMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cell-like compartments spontaneously emerge from scrambled frog eggs. Endoplasmic reticulum (red) and microtubules (green) are visible. Video created using epifluorescence microscopy.
<br>
<p>For more photos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6584">6584</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6585">6585</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6586">6586</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6591">6591</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6592">6592</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6593">6593</a>.</p>
<p>For videos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view:&nbsp;<a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6587">6587</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6588">6588</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6590">6590</a>.</p>
structure
Document Collection: 65887749
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6588/Screenshot%20(2).png'></DIV>Cell-like compartments emerging from scrambled frog eggs 2 NoVideoActive9/13/2020 11:27 AMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cell-like compartments spontaneously emerge from scrambled frog eggs, with nuclei (blue) from frog sperm. Endoplasmic reticulum (red) and microtubules (green) are also visible. Regions without nuclei formed smaller compartments. Video created using epifluorescence microscopy.
<br>
<p>For more photos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6584">6584</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6585">6585</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6586">6586</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6591">6591</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6592">6592</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6593">6593</a>.</p>
<p>For videos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view:&nbsp;<a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6587">6587</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6589">6589</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6590">6590</a>.</p>
structure
Document Collection: 65877747
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6587/Screenshot%20(1).png'></DIV>Cell-like compartments emerging from scrambled frog eggsNoVideoActive9/13/2020 11:26 AMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cell-like compartments spontaneously emerge from scrambled frog eggs, with nuclei (blue) from frog sperm. Endoplasmic reticulum (red) and microtubules (green) are also visible. Video created using epifluorescence microscopy.
<br>
<p>For more photos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6584">6584</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6585">6585</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6586">6586</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6591">6591</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6592">6592</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6593">6593</a>.</p>
<p>For videos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6588">6588</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6589">6589</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6590">6590</a>.</p>
structure
Document Collection: 65867742
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6586/img3_cheng_epi_pos6_t119_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Cell-like compartments from frog eggs 3 NoPhotographActive9/13/2020 11:23 AMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cell-like compartments that spontaneously emerged from scrambled frog eggs. Endoplasmic reticulum (red) and microtubules (green) are visible. Image created using epifluorescence microscopy.
<br>
<p>For more photos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6584">6584</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6585">6585</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6591">6591</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6592">6592</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6593">6593</a>.</p>
<p>For videos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view:&nbsp;<a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6587">6587</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6588">6588</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6589">6589</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6590">6590</a>.</p>
structure
Document Collection: 65857737
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6585/img2_cheng_epi_pos4_t090_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Cell-like compartments from frog eggs 2NoPhotographActive9/13/2020 11:22 AMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cell-like compartments that spontaneously emerged from scrambled frog eggs, with nuclei (blue) from frog sperm. Endoplasmic reticulum (red) and microtubules (green) are also visible. Regions without nuclei formed smaller compartments. Image created using epifluorescence microscopy.
<br>
<p>For more photos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6584">6584</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6586">6586</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6591">6591</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6592">6592</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6593">6593</a>.</p>
<p>For videos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view:&nbsp;<a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6587">6587</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6588">6588</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6589">6589</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6590">6590</a>.</p>
structure
Document Collection: 65847732
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6584/img1_cheng_epi_pos2_t093_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Cell-like compartments from frog eggsNoPhotographActive9/13/2020 11:20 AMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cell-like compartments that spontaneously emerged from scrambled frog eggs, with nuclei (blue) from frog sperm. Endoplasmic reticulum (red) and microtubules (green) are also visible. Image created using epifluorescence microscopy.
<br>
<p>For more photos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view: <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6585">6585</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6586">6586</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6591">6591</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6592">6592</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6593">6593</a>.</p>
<p>For videos of cell-like compartments from frog eggs view:&nbsp;<a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6587">6587</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6588">6588</a>, <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6589">6589</a>, and <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6590">6590</a>.</p>
structure
Document Collection: 65837727
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6583/WormCloseUp_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Closeup of fluorescent C. elegans showing muscle and ribosomal proteinNoPhotographActive3/19/2021 4:19 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Closeup of <i>C. elegans</i>, tiny roundworms, with a ribosomal protein glowing red and muscle fibers glowing green. Researchers used these worms to study a molecular pathway that affects aging. The ribosomal protein is involved in protein translation and may play a role in dietary restriction-induced longevity. Image created using confocal microscopy.
<br>View single roundworm here <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6581">6581</a>. <br>
View group of roundworms here <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6582">6582</a>.
Document Collection: 65827722
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6582/ThreeWorms_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Group of fluorescent C. elegans showing muscle and ribosomal proteinNoPhotographActive3/19/2021 4:20 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Three <i>C. elegans</i>, tiny roundworms, with a ribosomal protein glowing red and muscle fibers glowing green. Researchers used these worms to study a molecular pathway that affects aging. The ribosomal protein is involved in protein translation and may play a role in dietary restriction-induced longevity. Image created using confocal microscopy.
<br>View single roundworm here <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6581">6581</a>. <br>
View closeup of roundworms here <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6583">6583</a>.
Document Collection: 65817708
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6581/SingleWorm_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Fluorescent C. elegans showing muscle and ribosomal protein NoPhotographActive3/19/2021 4:22 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
<i>C. elegans</i>, a tiny roundworm, with a ribosomal protein glowing red and muscle fibers glowing green. Researchers used these worms to study a molecular pathway that affects aging. The ribosomal protein is involved in protein translation and may play a role in dietary restriction-induced longevity. Image created using confocal microscopy. <br>
View group of roundworms here <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6582">6582</a>. <br>
View closeup of roundworms here <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6583">6583</a>.
Document Collection: 65807703
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6580/NanowireImage_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Bacterial nanowire model NoIllustrationActive8/17/2020 11:44 PMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A model of a <i>Geobacter sulfurreducens</i> nanowire created from cryo-electron microscopy images. The bacterium conducts electricity through these nanowires, which are made up of protein and iron-containing molecules.
Document Collection: 65797698
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6579/SerotininReceptor2_thumb.jpg'></DIV>Full-length serotonin receptor (ion channel) NoIllustrationActive8/10/2020 8:09 PMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A 3D reconstruction, created using cryo-electron microscopy, of an ion channel known as the full-length serotonin receptor in complex with the antinausea drug granisetron (orange). Ion channels are proteins in cell membranes that help regulate many processes.
Document Collection: 65787693
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6578/TR%20Initiation%20(003)_thumb.jpg'></DIV>Bacterial ribosome assembly NoIllustrationActive8/10/2020 8:06 PMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
3D reconstructions of two stages in the assembly of the bacterial ribosome created from time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy images. Ribosomes translate genetic instructions into proteins.
Document Collection: 65777688
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6577/TRP%20Channel_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Transient receptor potential channel TRPV5NoIllustrationActive8/10/2020 7:36 PMHarris, Donald (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A 3D reconstruction of a transient receptor potential channel called TRPV5 that was created based on cryo-electron microscopy images. TRPV5 is primarily found in kidney cells and is essential for reabsorbing calcium into the blood.
Document Collection: 65737683
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6573/NuclearLamina_3views_300dpi_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Nuclear Lamina – Three Views NoPhotographActive12/22/2020 10:20 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Three views of the entire nuclear lamina of a HeLa cell produced by tilted light sheet 3D single-molecule super-resolution imaging using a platform termed TILT3D. 
<br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6572">6572</a> for a 3D view of this structure.<br>
nucleus
Document Collection: 65727678
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6572/NuclearLamina_300dpi_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Nuclear Lamina NoPhotographActive12/22/2020 10:20 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
The 3D single-molecule super-resolution reconstruction of the entire nuclear lamina in a HeLa cell was acquired using the TILT3D platform. TILT3D combines a tilted light sheet with point-spread function (PSF) engineering to provide a flexible imaging platform for 3D single-molecule super-resolution imaging in mammalian cells. 
<br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6573">6573</a> for 3 seperate views of this structure.<br>
nucleus
Document Collection: 65717673
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6571/ActinFilamentImage_thumb.jpg'></DIV>Actin filaments bundled around the dynamin helical polymer NoIllustrationActive12/22/2020 10:21 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Multiple actin filaments (magenta) are organized around a dynamin helical polymer (rainbow colored) in this model derived from cryo-electron tomography. By bundling actin, dynamin increases the strength of a cell’s skeleton and plays a role in cell-cell fusion, a process involved in conception, development, and regeneration.
cryo-ET
cytoskeleton
protein
Document Collection: 65707670
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6570/Riley_GFP_Competition_thumb.jpg'></DIV>Stress Response in Cells NoVideoActive2/16/2021 3:21 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Two highly stressed osteosarcoma cells are shown with a set of green droplet-like structures followed by a second set of magenta droplets. These droplets are composed of fluorescently labeled stress-response proteins, either G3BP or UBQLN2 (Ubiquilin-2). Each protein is undergoing a fascinating process, called phase separation, in which a non-membrane bound compartment of the cytoplasm emerges with a distinct environment from the surrounding cytoplasm. Subsequently, the proteins fuse with like proteins to form larger droplets, in much the same way that raindrops merge on a car’s windshield.
Document Collection: 65697666
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6569/cryo_em_caulobacter_thumb.jpg'></DIV>Cryo-electron tomography of a Caulobacter bacterium NoVideoActive12/22/2020 10:22 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
3D image of <i>Caulobacter</i> bacterium with various components highlighted: cell membranes (red and blue), protein shell (green), protein factories known as ribosomes (yellow), and storage granules (orange).
cryo-ET
bacteria
Document Collection: 65687662
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6568/Figure_2_72dpi.png'></DIV>Correlative imaging by annotation with single molecules (CIASM) process NoIllustrationActive12/22/2020 10:22 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
These images illustrate a technique combining cryo-electron tomography and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy called correlative imaging by annotation with single molecules (CIASM). CIASM enables researchers to identify small structures and individual molecules in cells that they couldn’t using older techniques.
cryo-ET
Document Collection: 656211791
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6562/actin-moviegif2%20(1).gif'></DIV>Drosophila (fruit fly) myosin 1D motility assayNoVideoActive12/22/2020 10:23 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Actin gliding powered by myosin 1D.  Note the counterclockwise motion of the gliding actin filaments.
protein
Document Collection: 65577652
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6557/Q1190217rgb1_Thumb.JPG'></DIV>Floral pattern in a mixture of two bacterial species, Acinetobacter baylyi and Escherichia coli, grown on a semi-solid agar for 24 hoursNoPhotographActive12/21/2020 3:21 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Floral pattern emerging as two bacterial species, motile <i>Acinetobacter baylyi</i> and non-motile <i>Escherichia coli</i> (green), are grown together for 24 hours on 0.75% agar surface from a small inoculum in the center of a Petri dish. <br><br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6553">6553</a> for a photo of this process at 48 hours on 1% agar surface.  <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6555">6555</a> for another photo of this process at 48 hours on 1% agar surface.<br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6556">6556</a> for a photo of this process at 72 hours on 0.5% agar surface. <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6550">6550</a> for a video of this process.
Document Collection: 65567647
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6556/Fig1A_Thumb.JPG'></DIV>Floral pattern in a mixture of two bacterial species, Acinetobacter baylyi and Escherichia coli, grown on a semi-solid agar for 72 hourNoPhotographActive12/21/2020 3:20 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Floral pattern emerging as two bacterial species, motile <i>Acinetobacter baylyi</i> and non-motile <i>Escherichia coli</i> (green), are grown together for 72 hours on 0.5% agar surface from a small inoculum in the center of a Petri dish. <br><br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6557">6557</a> for a photo of this process at 24 hours on 0.75% agar surface. <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6553">6553</a> for a photo of this process at 48 hours on 1% agar surface.  <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6555">6555</a> for another photo of this process at 48 hours on 1% agar surface.<br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6550">6550</a> for a video of this process.
Document Collection: 65557642
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6555/AnEspec2a_Thumb.JPG'></DIV>Floral pattern in a mixture of two bacterial species, Acinetobacter baylyi and Escherichia coli, grown on a semi-solid agar for 48 hours (photo 2)NoPhotographActive12/21/2020 3:15 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Floral pattern emerging as two bacterial species, motile <i>Acinetobacter baylyi</i> (red) and non-motile <i>Escherichia coli</i> (green), are grown together for 48 hours on 1% agar surface from a small inoculum in the center of a Petri dish. <br><br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6557">6557</a> for a photo of this process at 24 hours on 0.75% agar surface. <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6553">6553</a> for another photo of this process at 48 hours on 1% agar surface.  <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6556">6556</a> for a photo of this process at 72 hours on 0.5% agar surface. <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6550">6550</a> for a video of this process.
Document Collection: 65537637
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6553/v_1200_Thumb.JPG'></DIV>Floral pattern in a mixture of two bacterial species, Acinetobacter baylyi and Escherichia coli, grown on a semi-solid agar for 48 hours (photo 1)NoPhotographActive12/21/2020 3:13 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Floral pattern emerging as two bacterial species, motile <i>Acinetobacter baylyi</i> (red) and non-motile <i>Escherichia coli</i> (green), are grown together for 48 hours on 1% agar surface from a small inoculum in the center of a Petri dish. <br><br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6557">6557</a> for a photo of this process at 24 hours on 0.75% agar surface. <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6555">6555</a> for another photo of this process at 48 hours on 1% agar surface.  <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6556">6556</a> for a photo of this process at 72 hours on 0.5% agar surface.<br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6550">6550</a> for a video of this process.
Document Collection: 65517634
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6551/Sepsis_030920_Esp_thumb.jpg'></DIV>¿Qué es la sepsis? (Sepsis Infographic)NoIllustrationActive1/5/2024 11:52 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
La sepsis o septicemia es la respuesta fulminante y extrema del cuerpo a una infección. En los Estados Unidos, más de 1.7 millones de personas contraen sepsis cada año. Sin un tratamiento rápido, la sepsis puede provocar daño de los tejidos, insuficiencia orgánica y muerte. El NIGMS apoya a muchos investigadores en su trabajo para mejorar el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la sepsis.  <Br><Br>Vea <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6536">6536</a> para la versión en inglés de esta infografía.
Document Collection: 65507631
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6550/Flower-like%20patterns_thumb.jpg'></DIV>Time-lapse video of floral pattern in a mixture of two bacterial species, Acinetobacter baylyi and Escherichia coli, grown on a semi-solid agar for 24 hoursNoVideoActive12/21/2020 3:10 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This time-lapse video shows the emergence of a flower-like pattern in a mixture of two bacterial species, motile <i>Acinetobacter baylyi</i> and non-motile <i>Escherichia coli (green)</i>, that are grown together for 24 hours on 0.75% agar surface from a small inoculum in the center of a Petri dish.
<br><br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6557">6557</a> for a photo of this process at 24 hours on 0.75% agar surface. <br>See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6553">6553</a> for a photo of this process at 48 hours on 1% agar surface.  <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6555">6555</a> for another photo of this process at 48 hours on 1% agar surface.  <br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6556">6556</a> for a photo of this process at 72 hours on 0.5% agar surface.
Document Collection: 65497627
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6549/Brown_FalconieriVisuals_Axoneme_Watermark_Thumb.jpg'></DIV>The Structure of Cilia’s Doublet MicrotubulesNoVideoActive12/22/2020 10:27 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cilia (cilium in singular) are complex molecular machines found on many of our cells. One component of cilia is the doublet microtubule, a major part of cilia’s skeletons that give them support and shape. This animated video illustrates the structure of doublet microtubules, which contain 451 protein chains that were mapped using cryo-electron microscopy. Image can be found here <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6548"> 6548. </a>
cryo-EM
cytoskeleton
organelle
Document Collection: 65487622
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6548/18046_Axoneme_Still_Watermark_Thumb.JPG'></DIV>Partial Model of a Cilium’s Doublet MicrotubuleNoIllustrationActive12/22/2020 10:28 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Cilia (cilium in singular) are complex molecular machines found on many of our cells. One component of cilia is the doublet microtubule, a major part of cilia’s skeletons that give them support and shape. This animated image is a partial model of a doublet microtubule’s structure based on cryo-electron microscopy images. Video can be found here <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6549"> 6549. </a>
cryo-EM
cytoskeleton
organelle
Document Collection: 65477617
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6547/UBXD8-VCP%20delta3_Thumb.JPG'></DIV>Cell Nucleus and Lipid DropletsNoPhotographActive7/27/2022 10:47 AMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A cell nucleus (blue) surrounded by lipid droplets (yellow). Exogenously expressed, S-tagged UBXD8 (green) recruits endogenous p97/VCP (red) to the surface of lipid droplets in oleate-treated HeLa cells. Nucleus stained with DAPI.
organelle
lipids
Document Collection: 65417603
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6541/WhatsTheConnection_1280x720.jpg'></DIV>Pathways: What's the Connection? | Different Jobs in a Science LabNoVideoActive12/21/2020 2:57 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Learn about some of the different jobs in a scientific laboratory and how researchers work as a team to make discoveries.
Discover more resources from NIGMS’ <a href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/pathways/Pages/Home.aspx">Pathways</a> collaboration with Scholastic.
View the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Zwx-73hwug&list=PL9fzcZ7JxMmZry8oLhKq9Iaf4EPVinIXf&index=2">video<img src="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/PublishingImages/exitdisclaimer.gif" alt="Link to external web site" style="border-width: 0px;"/></a> on YouTube for closed captioning.
Document Collection: 65407600
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6540/WhyScientistsStudyCells_1280x720.jpg'></DIV>Pathways: What is It? | Why Scientists Study CellsNoVideoActive12/4/2020 10:01 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Learn how curiosity about the world and our cells is key to scientific discoveries.
Discover more resources from NIGMS’ <a href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/pathways/Pages/Home.aspx">Pathways</a> collaboration with Scholastic.
View the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GlFeLIJyPE8&list=PL9fzcZ7JxMmZry8oLhKq9Iaf4EPVinIXf&index=1">video<img src="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/PublishingImages/exitdisclaimer.gif" alt="Link to external web site" style="border-width: 0px;"/></a> on YouTube for closed captioning.
Document Collection: 65397597
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6539/WhatIsBasicScience_1280x720.jpg'></DIV>Pathways: What is Basic Science?NoVideoActive12/4/2020 10:06 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Learn about basic science, sometimes called “pure” or “fundamental” science, and how it contributes to the development of medical treatments.
Discover more resources from NIGMS’ <a href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/pathways/Pages/Home.aspx">Pathways</a> collaboration with Scholastic.
View the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Fg2uXLxtII&list=PL9fzcZ7JxMmZry8oLhKq9Iaf4EPVinIXf&index=3">video<img src="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/PublishingImages/exitdisclaimer.gif" alt="Link to external web site" style="border-width: 0px;"/></a> on YouTube for closed captioning.
Document Collection: 65387594
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6538/FascinatingCellsResearchOrganisms_1280x720.jpg'></DIV>Pathways: The Fascinating Cells of Research OrganismsNoVideoActive12/4/2020 10:05 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Learn how research organisms, such as fruit flies and mice, can help us understand and treat human diseases.
Discover more resources from NIGMS’ <a href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/pathways/Pages/Home.aspx">Pathways</a> collaboration with Scholastic.
View the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibSbNUhCNIo&list=PL9fzcZ7JxMmZry8oLhKq9Iaf4EPVinIXf&index=4">video<img src="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/PublishingImages/exitdisclaimer.gif" alt="Link to external web site" style="border-width: 0px;"/></a> on YouTube for closed captioning.
Document Collection: 65367588
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6536/Sepsis_Thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Sepsis InfographicNoIllustrationActive1/5/2024 11:51 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Sepsis is the body’s overactive and extreme response to an infection. More than 1.7 million people get sepsis each year in the United States. Without prompt treatment, sepsis can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. Many NIGMS-supported researchers are working to improve sepsis diagnosis and treatment. Learn more with our <a href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/Pages/Sepsis.aspx"> sepsis featured topic page</a>.  <br><br>
See <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6551">6551</a> for the Spanish version of this infographic.
Sepsis
Document Collection: 65357581
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6535/Kupffer_cell_in_liver-1_NCMIR_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Kupffer cell residing in the liverNoPhotographActive12/21/2020 2:51 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Kupffer cells appear in the liver during the early stages of mammalian development and stay put throughout life to protect liver cells, clean up old red blood cells, and regulate iron levels.

Source article <a href="https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2019/12/12/replenishing-the-livers-immune-protections/">Replenishing the Liver’s Immune Protections</a>. Posted on December 12th, 2019 by Dr. Francis Collins.
macrophage
immune cell
Document Collection: 65347576
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6534/The_Three_Pharingos_16colored_Thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Mosaicism in C. elegans (White Background)NoPhotographActive12/21/2020 2:47 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
In the worm <i>C. elegans</i>, double-stranded RNA made in neurons can silence matching genes in a variety of cell types through the transport of RNA between cells. The head region of three worms that were genetically modified to express a fluorescent protein were imaged and the images were color-coded based on depth. The worm on the left lacks neuronal double-stranded RNA and thus every cell is fluorescent. In the middle worm, the expression of the fluorescent protein is silenced by neuronal double-stranded RNA and thus most cells are not fluorescent. The worm on the right lacks an enzyme that amplifies RNA for silencing. Surprisingly, the identities of the cells that depend on this enzyme for gene silencing are unpredictable. As a result, worms of identical genotype are nevertheless random mosaics for how the function of gene silencing is carried out. For more, see <a href="https://academic.oup.com/nar/article/47/19/10059/5563947">journal article</a> and <a href="https://umdrightnow.umd.edu/news/umd-scientists-discover-hidden-differences-may-help-cells-evade-drug-therapy">press release.</a>

Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6532">6532</a>.
Document Collection: 65327571
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6532/The_Three_Pharingos_4_flipped_Thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Mosaicism in C. elegans (Black Background)NoPhotographActive12/21/2020 2:45 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
In the worm <i>C. elegans</i>, double-stranded RNA made in neurons can silence matching genes in a variety of cell types through the transport of RNA between cells. The head region of three worms that were genetically modified to express a fluorescent protein were imaged and the images were color-coded based on depth. The worm on the left lacks neuronal double-stranded RNA and thus every cell is fluorescent. In the middle worm, the expression of the fluorescent protein is silenced by neuronal double-stranded RNA and thus most cells are not fluorescent. The worm on the right lacks an enzyme that amplifies RNA for silencing. Surprisingly, the identities of the cells that depend on this enzyme for gene silencing are unpredictable. As a result, worms of identical genotype are nevertheless random mosaics for how the function of gene silencing is carried out. For more, see <a href="https://academic.oup.com/nar/article/47/19/10059/5563947">journal article</a> and <a href="https://umdrightnow.umd.edu/news/umd-scientists-discover-hidden-differences-may-help-cells-evade-drug-therapy">press release.</a>
Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6534">6534</a>.
Document Collection: 65227554
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6522/Fly%20ovaries-1_STAT-Actin-DAPI-Rogers1-option%201_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Fruit fly ovaryNoPhotographActive12/22/2020 11:09 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
In this image of a stained fruit fly ovary, the ovary is packed with immature eggs (with DNA stained blue). The cytoskeleton (in pink) is a collection of fibers that gives a cell shape and support. The signal-transmitting molecules like STAT (in yellow) are common to reproductive processes in humans. Researchers used this image to show molecular staining and high-resolution imaging techniques to students.
drosophila
Document Collection: 65217549
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6521/NYC%20Skyline,%20FASEB%20winner_Thumb.JPG'></DIV>Yeast art depicting the New York City skylineNoPhotographActive12/22/2020 11:10 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This skyline of New York City was created by “printing” nanodroplets containing yeast (<i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>) onto a large plate. Each dot is a separate yeast colony. As the colonies grew, a picture emerged, creating art. To make the different colors shown here, yeast strains were genetically engineered to produce pigments naturally made by bacteria, fungi, and sea creatures such as coral and sea anemones. Using genes from other organisms to make biological compounds paves the way toward harnessing yeast in the production of other useful molecules, from food to fuels and drugs.
Document Collection: 65207544
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6520/9%20Dividing%20Cancer%20Cell_Thumb.JPG'></DIV>HeLa cell undergoing division into two daughter cellsNoPhotographActive12/21/2020 2:39 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Here, a human HeLa cell (a type of immortal cell line used in laboratory experiments) is undergoing cell division. They come from cervical cancer cells that were obtained in 1951 from Henrietta Lacks, a patient at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The final stage of division, called cytokinesis, occurs after the genomes—shown in yellow—have split into two new daughter cells. The myosin II is a motor protein shown in blue, and the actin filaments, which are types of protein that support cell structure, are shown in red. Read more about <a href="https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2013/08/07/hela-cells-a-new-chapter-in-an-enduring-story/">NIH and the Lacks family</a>.
mitosis
chromosomes
Document Collection: 65197539
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6519/Fibroblast%20Division_Thumb.JPG'></DIV>Human fibroblast undergoing cell divisionNoPhotographActive12/22/2020 11:11 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
During cell division, cells physically divide after separating their genetic material to create two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell. This process is important so that new cells can grow and develop. In this image, a human fibroblast cell—a type of connective tissue cell that plays a key role in wound healing and tissue repair—is dividing into two daughter cells. A cell protein called actin appears gray, the myosin II (part of the family of motor proteins responsible for muscle contractions) appears green, and DNA appears magenta.
mitosis
Document Collection: 65187534
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6518/Scott%20Chimileski%20biofilm-Thumnail.jpg'></DIV>Biofilm formed by a pathogenNoPhotographActive12/22/2020 11:12 AMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
A biofilm is a highly organized community of microorganisms that develops naturally on certain surfaces. These communities are common in natural environments and generally do not pose any danger to humans. Many microbes in biofilms have a positive impact on the planet and our societies. Biofilms can be helpful in treatment of wastewater, for example. This dime-sized biofilm, however, was formed by the opportunistic pathogen <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. Under some conditions, this bacterium can infect wounds that are caused by severe burns. The bacterial cells release a variety of materials to form an extracellular matrix, which is stained red in this photograph. The matrix holds the biofilm together and protects the bacteria from antibiotics and the immune system.
Document Collection: 65077532
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6507/'></DIV>HIV animationYesVideoInactive12/21/2020 2:25 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
How does HIV infection occur? This molecular animation depicts the process of how HIV infects a T cell and transforms the cell into a viral factory.

Completed in collaboration with dozens of HIV researchers across the United States, this film is part of the Science of HIV project (scienceofHIV.org), with support from the CHEETAH Center at the University of Utah (cheetah.biochem.utah.edu/) and the NIGMS. Please feel free to download and share this animation, and visit the Science of HIV website (scienceofHIV.org) for more information.

To view a version of this animation with narration, see: vimeo.com/260291607/5bcaf19961

AIDS
Document Collection: 65037521
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6503/HIRES-Flower%20formation%20Elliot%20Meyerowitz2019_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Arabidopsis Thaliana: Flowers Spring to LifeNoPhotographActive10/7/2021 1:50 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This image capture shows how a single gene, STM, plays a starring role in plant development. This gene acts like a molecular fountain of youth, keeping cells ever-young until it’s time to grow up and commit to making flowers and other plant parts. Because of its ease of use and low cost, <i>Arabidopsis</i> is a favorite model for scientists to learn the basic principles driving tissue growth and regrowth for humans as well as the beautiful plants outside your window. 
Image captured from video Watch Flowers Spring to Life, featured in the <a href="https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2019/04/25/watch-flowers-spring-to-life/">NIH Director's Blog: Watch Flowers Spring to Life.</a>
Arabidopsis thaliana; Flowers; Spring; Spring to Life
Document Collection: 64897262
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6489/CRISPR_Frame_5_thumbnail_T.jpg'></DIV>CRISPR Illustration Frame 5NoIllustrationActive12/21/2020 12:37 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This illustration shows, in simplified terms, how the CRISPR-Cas9 system can be used as a gene-editing tool. This is the fifthframe in a series of five. The CRISPR system has two components joined together: a finely tuned targeting device (a small strand of RNA programmed to look for a specific DNA sequence) and a strong cutting device (an enzyme called Cas9 that can cut through a double strand of DNA).
For an explanation and overview of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, see the NIGMS Biomedical Beat blog entry, <a href="https://biobeat.nigms.nih.gov/2014/09/field-focus-precision-gene-editing-with-crispr/">Field Focus: Precision Gene Editing with CRISPR</a> and the iBiology video, <a href="http://www.ibiology.org/ibiomagazine/jennifer-doudna-genome-engineering-with-crispr-cas9-birth-of-a-breakthrough-technology.html">Genome Engineering with CRISPR-Cas9: Birth of a Breakthrough Technology</a>.
Document Collection: 64887254
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6488/CRISPR_Frame_4_thumbnail_T.jpg'></DIV>CRISPR Illustration Frame 4NoIllustrationActive12/21/2020 12:35 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This illustration shows, in simplified terms, how the CRISPR-Cas9 system can be used as a gene-editing tool. This is the fourth frame in a series of five. The CRISPR system has two components joined together: a finely tuned targeting device (a small strand of RNA programmed to look for a specific DNA sequence) and a strong cutting device (an enzyme called Cas9 that can cut through a double strand of DNA).
For an explanation and overview of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, see the NIGMS Biomedical Beat blog entry, <a href="https://biobeat.nigms.nih.gov/2014/09/field-focus-precision-gene-editing-with-crispr/">Field Focus: Precision Gene Editing with CRISPR</a> and the iBiology video, <a href="http://www.ibiology.org/ibiomagazine/jennifer-doudna-genome-engineering-with-crispr-cas9-birth-of-a-breakthrough-technology.html">Genome Engineering with CRISPR-Cas9: Birth of a Breakthrough Technology</a>.
Document Collection: 64877247
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6487/CRISPR_Frame_3_thumbnail_T.jpg'></DIV>CRISPR Illustration Frame 3NoIllustrationActive12/21/2020 12:34 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This illustration shows, in simplified terms, how the CRISPR-Cas9 system can be used as a gene-editing tool. This is the third frame in a series of five. The CRISPR system has two components joined together: a finely tuned targeting device (a small strand of RNA programmed to look for a specific DNA sequence) and a strong cutting device (an enzyme called Cas9 that can cut through a double strand of DNA).
For an explanation and overview of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, see the NIGMS Biomedical Beat blog entry, <a href="https://biobeat.nigms.nih.gov/2014/09/field-focus-precision-gene-editing-with-crispr/">Field Focus: Precision Gene Editing with CRISPR</a> and the iBiology video, <a href="http://www.ibiology.org/ibiomagazine/jennifer-doudna-genome-engineering-with-crispr-cas9-birth-of-a-breakthrough-technology.html">Genome Engineering with CRISPR-Cas9: Birth of a Breakthrough Technology</a>.
Document Collection: 64867240
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6486/CRISPR_Frame_2_thumbnail_T.jpg'></DIV>CRISPR Illustration Frame 2NoIllustrationActive12/21/2020 12:33 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This illustration shows, in simplified terms, how the CRISPR-Cas9 system can be used as a gene-editing tool. This is the second frame in a series of five. The CRISPR system has two components joined together: a finely tuned targeting device (a small strand of RNA programmed to look for a specific DNA sequence) and a strong cutting device (an enzyme called Cas9 that can cut through a double strand of DNA).
For an explanation and overview of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, see the NIGMS Biomedical Beat blog entry, <a href="https://biobeat.nigms.nih.gov/2014/09/field-focus-precision-gene-editing-with-crispr/">Field Focus: Precision Gene Editing with CRISPR</a> and the iBiology video, <a href="http://www.ibiology.org/ibiomagazine/jennifer-doudna-genome-engineering-with-crispr-cas9-birth-of-a-breakthrough-technology.html">Genome Engineering with CRISPR-Cas9: Birth of a Breakthrough Technology</a>.
Document Collection: 64657099
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6465/CRISPR_Frame_1_thumbnail_T.jpg'></DIV>CRISPR Illustration Frame 1NoIllustrationActive12/21/2020 12:33 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This illustration shows, in simplified terms, how the CRISPR-Cas9 system can be used as a gene-editing tool. This is the first frame in a series of five. The CRISPR system has two components joined together: a finely tuned targeting device (a small strand of RNA programmed to look for a specific DNA sequence) and a strong cutting device (an enzyme called Cas9 that can cut through a double strand of DNA).
For an explanation and overview of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, see the NIGMS Biomedical Beat blog entry, <a href="https://biobeat.nigms.nih.gov/2014/09/field-focus-precision-gene-editing-with-crispr/">Field Focus: Precision Gene Editing with CRISPR</a> and the iBiology video, <a href="http://www.ibiology.org/ibiomagazine/jennifer-doudna-genome-engineering-with-crispr-cas9-birth-of-a-breakthrough-technology.html">Genome Engineering with CRISPR-Cas9: Birth of a Breakthrough Technology</a>.
CRISPR
Document Collection: 63897048
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6389/Red%20and%20white%20blood%20cells%20in%20lung_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Red and white blood cells in the lungNoPhotographActive2/3/2020 2:41 PMJohnson, Susan (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
red blood cells; white blood cells; lung cells; red and white blood cells in lung
Document Collection: 63887049
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6388/E.%20coli_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>E. ColiNoPhotographActive12/21/2020 12:16 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
E. Coli
Escherichia coli
bacteria
Document Collection: 63877047
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6387/Blood%20clot_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Blood ClotNoPhotographActive12/21/2020 12:16 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
blood clot
red blood cells
erythrocytes
Document Collection: 63566998
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6356/Flu%20virus%202%20Amaro_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>H1N1 Influenza VirusNoIllustrationActive11/1/2021 10:30 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
H1N1 Influenza virus
Flu
hemagluttinin
neuraminidase glycoproteins
Snowflake
Document Collection: 63556997
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6355/Flu%20virus%201%20Amaro_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>H1N1 Influenza Virus NoIllustrationActive11/1/2021 10:31 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
CellPack image of the H1N1 influenza virus, with hemagluttinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins in green and red, respectively, on the outer envelope (white); matrix protein in gray, and ribonucleoproteins particles inside the virus in red and green. Related to image <a href="https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=6356">6356</a>.
H1N1 influenza virus
CellPack
hemagluttinin
neuraminidase glycoproteins
Flu
Snowflake
Document Collection: 63536996
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6353/ATP%20Synthase%20NRAMM_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>ATP SynthaseNoIllustrationActive8/10/2022 11:38 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
Atomic model of the membrane region of the mitochondrial ATP synthase built into a cryo-EM map at 3.6 Å resolution. ATP synthase is the primary producer of ATP in aerobic cells. Drugs that inhibit the bacterial ATP synthase, but not the human mitochondrial enzyme, can serve as antibiotics. This therapeutic approach was successfully demonstrated with the bedaquiline, an ATP synthase inhibitor now used in the treatment of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis.
 <Br><Br>More information about this structure can be found in the <em>Science</em> paper <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29074581/">”Atomic model for the dimeric F0 region of mitochondrial ATP synthase”</a> by Guo et. al.
ATP Synthase
mitochondria
tuberculosis
bedaquiline
atomic model
antibiotic
cryo-EM
TB
cryo-electron microscopy
adenosine triphosphate
Document Collection: 63526995
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6352/CRISPR%202%20of%202%20NRAMM_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>CRISPR surveillance complexNoIllustrationActive12/21/2020 12:09 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
This image shows how the CRISPR surveillance complex is disabled by two copies of anti-CRISPR protein AcrF1 (red) and one AcrF2 (light green). These anti-CRISPRs block access to the CRISPR RNA (green tube) preventing the surveillance complex from scanning and targeting invading viral DNA for destruction.
CRISPR
Anti-CRISPR
viral DNA
gene editing
Document Collection: 63516993
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6351/CRISPR%201%20of%202%20NRAMM_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>CRISPRNoIllustrationActive12/21/2020 12:08 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
RNA incorporated into the CRISPR surveillance complex is positioned to scan across foreign DNA. Cryo-EM density from a 3Å reconstruction is shown as a yellow mesh.
CRISPR
cryo-EM
RNA
DNA
gene editing
cryo-electron microscopy
Document Collection: 63506994
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6350/Aldolase%20NRAMM_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>AldolaseNoPhotographActive12/21/2020 12:07 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
2.5Å resolution reconstruction of rabbit muscle aldolase collected on a FEI/Thermo Fisher Titan Krios with energy filter and image corrector.
 
Rabbit
muscle
cryo-TEM
enzyme
cryo-transmission electron microscopy
Document Collection: 63476991
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6347/Human%20Adenovirus%20NRAMM_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Human AdenovirusNoIllustrationActive12/21/2020 12:06 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
The cryo-EM structure of human adenovirus D26 (HAdV-D26) at near atomic resolution (3.7 Å), determined in collaboration with the NRAMM facility*. In difference to archetype HAdV-C5, the HAdV-D26 is a low seroprevalent viral vector, which is being used to generate Ebola virus vaccines.
Human Adenovirus
DNA
Cryo-EM
cryo-electron microscopy
Document Collection: 63466992
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6346/Instasome%20NRAMM_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Intasome      NoIllustrationActive12/21/2020 12:05 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Salk researchers captured the structure of a protein complex called an intasome (center) that lets viruses similar to HIV establish permanent infection in their hosts. The intasome hijacks host genomic material, DNA (white) and histones (beige), and irreversibly inserts viral DNA (blue). The image was created by Jamie Simon and Dmitry Lyumkis. Work that led to the 3D map was published in: Ballandras-Colas A, Brown M, Cook NJ, Dewdney TG, Demeler B, Cherepanov P, Lyumkis D, & Engelman AN. (2016). Cryo-EM reveals a novel octameric integrase structure for ?-retroviral intasome function. Nature, 530(7590), 358—361
retrovirus
HIV
instasome
DNA
cryo-electron microscopy
Document Collection: 63446989
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/6344/drosophila%20image_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>DrosophilaNoPhotographActive12/21/2020 12:04 PMWalter, Taylor (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Two adult fruit flies (Drosophila)
fruit fly
drosophila
Document Collection: 58966953
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/5896/Image%20for%20Stetten%20poster%202017%2018x12_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Stetten Lecture 2017poster imageNoIllustrationActive11/1/2021 10:34 AMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
This image is featured on the poster for Dr. Rommie Amaro's 2017 Stetten Lecture.  It depicts a detailed physical model of an influenza virus, incorporating information from several structural data sources.  The small molecules around the virus are sialic acid molecules. The virus binds to and cleaves sialic acid as it enters and exits host cells.  Researchers are building these highly detailed molecular scale models of different biomedical systems and then “bringing them to life” with physics-based methods, either molecular or Brownian dynamics simulations, to understand the structural dynamics of the systems and their complex interactions with drug or substrate molecules.
Influenza
Stetten Lecture
Virus
model
Document Collection: 58956952
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/5895/bioluminescent%20microcentrifuge%20tubes_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Bioluminescence in a TubeNoPhotographActive3/1/2021 2:16 PMDolan, Lauren (NIH/NIGMS) [C]
Details about the basic biology and chemistry of the ingredients that produce bioluminescence are allowing scientists to harness it as an imaging tool. Credit: Nathan Shaner, Scintillon Institute.<br></br>
From Biomedical Beat article July 2017:  <a href="https://biobeat.nigms.nih.gov/2017/07/chasing-fireflies-and-better-cellular-imaging-techniques/#more-4455">Chasing Fireflies—and Better Cellular Imaging Techniques</a>
bioluminescense luciferin luciferase
Document Collection: 58886951
  
<DIV><img style='max-width:100px;max-height:100px' src='/PublicAssets/5888/firework_thumbnail.jpg'></DIV>Independence DayNoPhotographActive7/12/2022 2:18 PMCrowley, Rachel (NIH/NIGMS) [E]
This graphic that resembles a firework was created from a picture of a <a href=https://images.nigms.nih.gov/pages/DetailPage.aspx?imageid2=3451>fruit fly spermatid</a>. This fruit fly spermatid recycles various molecules, including malformed or damaged proteins. Actin filaments (red) in the cell draw unwanted proteins toward a barrel-shaped structure called the proteasome (green clusters), which degrades the molecules into their basic parts for re-use.
fireworks, july 4th
Document Collection: 58876949