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A macrophage—a type of immune cell that engulfs invaders—“eats” and is activated by a “two-faced” Janus particle. The particle is called “two-faced” because each of its two hemispheres is coated with a different type of molecule, shown here in red and cyan. During macrophage activation, a transcription factor tagged with a green fluorescence protein (NF-κB) gradually moves from the cell’s cytoplasm into its nucleus and causes DNA transcription.
The distribution of molecules on “two-faced” Janus particles can be altered to control the activation of immune cells. Details on this “geometric manipulation” strategy can be found in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences paper "Geometrical reorganization of Dectin-1 and TLR2 on single phagosomes alters their synergistic immune signaling" by Li et al. and the Scientific Reports paper "Spatial organization of FcγR and TLR2/1 on phagosome membranes differentially regulates their synergistic and inhibitory receptor crosstalk" by Li et al.
This video was captured using epi-fluorescence microscopy.
Related to video 6800.
Yan Yu, Indiana University, Bloomington.
Wenqian Li, Yan Yu Group, Indiana University, Bloomington.
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